Literary process of the late 1920s - mid 1950s
Social and literary situation. Development of prose
After studying this chapter, the student must:
• about changing the forms of literary life; on the creation of the Union of Soviet Writers, on the tightening of relations between literature and government and the nationalization of literature;
• about changing the ratio of different literary trends (realism, modernism, avant-garde);
• about the replacement of modern and avant-garde currents in the sphere of "secret" literature;
• about the conquests of representatives of the "secret" literature (AP Platonov, MA Bulgakov, great poets of the era), which became accessible to the reader much later - in the years of "thaw", perestroika and post-perestroika period;
• problem-thematic and stylistic aspects in the development of the "secret" literature;
• The place of M. Gorky, A. Tolstoy, L. M. Leonov, M. A. Sholokhov, Μ. M. Prishvin in the literary process of the late 1920's - early 1950's;
• Socialist Realism as a historical and cultural phenomenon;
• Socialist Realism and Socialism;
• The fate of the lyrics in the era of reducing the generic status of the lyrics;
• The work of AA Akhmatova, BL Pasternak, OE Mandelstam in the context of the "worn-out era";
• problem-thematic aspects of the development of prose and poetry in their similarity and difference; general systemic patterns of the development of prose and poetry;
How to ...
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be able to
• to determine the relationship between the significant socio-cultural and the aesthetic factors proper to influence the literary process;
• Analyze artistic texts in a sociocultural and literary context;
concepts "social realism", "sotskanon", "lyrics", "nationalization of literature".
Social literary situation
The late 1920's - early 1950's. - one of the dramatic periods in the history of United States literature. On the one hand, the people, inspired by the idea of building a new world, are committing labor exploits. The whole country stands up for the defense of the fatherland from the German fascist invaders. Victory in the Great Patriotic War inspires optimism and hopes for a better life. These processes are reflected in the literature of the metropolis. The work of many Soviet writers is influenced by the idea of M. Gorky, most fully embodied in the epic "The Life of Klim Samgin" and the play "Yegor Bulychov and others", that only participation in the revolutionary transformation of society makes a person a person. Dozens of talented writers were subjectively honestly reflecting the hard work of Soviet people, often performed by the heroic heroics, the birth of a new collectivist psychology. That is why one can not agree with those publicists of the late 1980s and early 1990s who were ready to celebrate the commemoration of Soviet literature by enrolling all Soviet writers in the ranks of conformists.
Especially bright splash of the literary process took place during the Great Patriotic War and several first post-war years. In the time of the national disaster, the voices of AA Akhmatova and BL Pasternak resounded, a place was published in the press for AP Platonov; M. Prishvin. From distant France to the United States, United States writer M. A. Osorgin sent angry articles about fascists with a risk to life. Another United States author, G. Gazdanov, collaborated with the French Resistance, editing the newspaper of Soviet prisoners of war, who became French partisans. With disdain rejected the proposal of the Germans to cooperate IA Bunin and Teffi. The war again made possible a tragedy in the domestic literature, and it began to sound in the works of artists as diverse as PG Antokolsky, VM Inber, AA Surkov, MI Aliger. The people's hero returned to literature - not a leader, not a superman, but an ordinary soldier, quite earthly, ordinary. This is the lyrical hero of the cycle of verses by K. M. Simonov With you and without you & quot ;, and Vasily Terkin from the book about the fighter A. T. Twardowski.
On the other hand, it was in the second half of the 1920s - early 1930s. literature experienced a powerful ideological pressure, suffered tangible and irreplaceable loss. In 1926, the number of the magazine "New World" was confiscated; with "The Loop of the Unextinguished Moon" B. A. Pilnyak. Censorship saw in this work not only the philosophical idea of the human right to personal freedom, but also a direct allusion to the assassination of MV Frunze on the orders of JV Stalin - a fact unproven, but widely spread in the circles of "dedicated". Pilnyak's collection of works will be published even before 1929, but his fate is already predetermined: the writer will be shot in the 1930s.
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In the late 1920's - early 1930's. still published, although they are being criticized Envy Yu. K. Olesha and "At the dead end" V.V. Veresaeva. In both works describes the emotional throwing intellectuals and similar tumult less and less encouraged in the society claimed unanimity. In the opinion of orthodox party criticism, to a Soviet person doubts and spiritual dramas are not inherent, alien.
In 1929, a scandal broke out with the publication in Czechoslovakia of the novel by EI Zamyatin, "We". The cruelest criticism was almost innocuous from a censored point of view, the traveler's thoughts about the collective farm life of BA Pilnyak and AP Platonov ("Che-Che-O"). For the story of Andrei Platonov Doubting Makar the editor of the journal AA Fadeyev, by his own admission, "got from Stalin". From this time on, not only AP Platonov, but also NA Klyuev, MA Bulgakov, EI Zamyatin, BA Pilnyak, DI Kharms, and N. Kh. M. Oleinikov and a number of other writers of different directions. Complex tests fall to the share of satirists Μ. M. Zoshchenko, Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov.
If until the mid-1920's. books of United States emigrants still penetrated into Russia, and Soviet writers often visited Berlin, Paris, other centers of resettlement of the United States diaspora, and then in the late 1920s an iron curtain was established between Russia and the rest of the world. However, it was the 1930-1950's. marked by the highest
flourishing literature of the diaspora. His best works - Dark alleys & quot ;, Arsenyev's Life and others created IA Bunin. In the writings of writers of the United States emigre, the idea of conciliarism and spirituality, of unity and love, which went back to the works of United States religious philosophers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was preserved and developed. (VS Solovyov, NF Fedorov, KE Tsiolkovsky, NA Berdyaev, and others). The humanistic thoughts of FM Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy about the moral perfection of man as the highest sense of being, about freedom and love as manifestations of the divine essence of man constitute the content of the books of IS Shmelev ("The Sun of the Dead"), B.K Zaitsev ("Strange Journey"), MA Osorgin ("Sivtsev Vrazhek"). The spiritual world of the United States emigre is revealed in the poetry of VF Khodasevich, GI Ivanov, GV Adamovich, B. Yu. Poplavsky, A. Nessmaslov and other writers.
In 1932, the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) "On the restructuring of literary and art organizations" was adopted. Soviet writers at first perceived it as a fair decision by the party to free them from the dictates of the United States Association of Proletarian Writers. Under the guise of upholding class positions, the association ignored almost all the best works created in those years, and disdainfully treated writers of non-proletarian origin. The resolution did say that writers living in the USSR are united; a separate paragraph of the resolution eliminated RAPP and created the Union of Soviet Writers. In fact, the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Was concerned not so much with the fate of writers, but with the fact that people who were not always close to its leadership spoke on behalf of the party. The party, which itself wanted to direct literature directly, dreamed of seeing it as part of the general proletarian cause, a "wheel and cog" of one single, great party mechanism. " And although at the First Congress of Soviet Writers in 1934, M. Gorky, who delivered a keynote address and several times took the floor to the Congress, insistently stressed that unity does not deny diversity and that no one is given the temper to command writers, his voice, figuratively speaking , drowned in applause.
Despite the fact that at the First Congress of Writers of the USSR, socialist realism was proclaimed "basic" (but, we note, not the only one) by the method of Soviet fiction and literary criticism, and in the Writers' Charter it was written that "socialist realism provides creative creativity with an exceptional opportunity for the manifestation of creative initiative, the choice of various forms, styles and genres" after the Congress, the tendency of universalization of literature, bringing it to a single aesthetic pattern, became more and more evident. Innocent at first glance, the discussion about the language, started by the dispute between Maxim Gorky and Fedor Panferov about the legitimacy of using dialect words in a work of art, soon evolved into a struggle with any original linguistic phenomena in literature. Such stylistic phenomena as ornamentalism and fairy tales were questioned. All style searches were declared formalism: not only the uniformity of ideas in fiction, but also the monotony of its very language, was increasingly asserted. Under the complete ban, experiments in the field of language related to the work of the writers of DIO Kharms, AI Vvedensky, NG Oleinikov were included.
Only children's writers could still use in their frivolous works of the game in word, sounds, semantic paradoxes (S. Ya. Marshak, K. I. Chukovsky). That's why children's book played a special role in the literature of the 1930s. It was in this genre-themed area that there was room for a joke, a game. Writers spoke not so much of class as about universal values: kindness, nobility, honesty, ordinary family joys. They talked at ease, cheerfully, brightly. Such are the books of Boris Stepanovich Zhitkov (1882-1938), Konstantin Georgievich Paustovsky (1892-1968), Vitaly Valentinovich Bianchi (1894-1959) , Yevgeny Ivanovich Charushin (1901 - 1965), Arkady Petrovich Gaidar (1904-1941).
* * *
In the military and the first post-war years, real realism revived in Soviet literature, and more recently, condemned romanticism. However, official propaganda did not need a tragic truth about the war, about the mistakes of the war years. A whole series of party resolutions of 1946-1948. oriented Soviet literature on the varnishing of reality, on the image constructed according to the requirements of the normative aesthetics, detached from the life of the hero. It was in those years that the " theory of conflictlessness was born," asserting that in a socialist society if there are any conflicts, it is only between "good" and best & quot ;. True, at the XIX Congress of the CPSU (B.) In 1952, the theory of conflictlessness was formally criticized, and it was even stated that the society needed "Soviet Gogol and Saltykov-Shchedrin." To this, one of the writers responded with a caustic epigram: "... we need // Shodrin's similarities and such Gogols,/That they did not touch us."Stalin's prizes were often awarded to writers whose works were far from real life and in which contrived conflicts were resolved easily and quickly, and the heroes were idealized and alien to ordinary human feelings. The content of such books is very tart and accurately described by AT Tvardovsky in the chapter "Literary conversation" from the poem "For the distance - distance":
You look, the novel, and everything is all right:
Showing the method of new masonry,
Backward Deputy Growing Up
And in communism going grandfather;
She and he are advanced,
The motor launched for the first time,
Party movement, storm, breakthrough, work,
Minister in the shops and the general ball ...
It was no better with poetry. Almost all the major Soviet poets were silent after the war: some wrote "in the table", others experienced a creative crisis. Missing fuse - with merciless self-criticism later told about this AT Tvardovsky in the poem "For the distance - far."
In the prose of the late 1920's - mid-1950's. with a certain degree of conventionality, three directions can be distinguished, the development of each of which has its own dynamics - "run-up", "culmination", "braking", "recession". This is, firstly, the myth-making of the Soviet era-the so-called literature of socialist choice. Writers engaged in socialist ideas took part in its creation. They took upon themselves the mission of spiritualizing everyday life, mythologizing reality, giving it the features of a fulfilled future. Secondly, the direction associated with the inheritance and development of the conquests of symbolism and the avant-garde is non-classical> prose. Thirdly, the direction, whose representatives, being in an inner relationship with the creators of the "secret" literature, possessed their own strategy of artistic mastery and the transformation of reality, allowing them to have a reputation of classics of Soviet literature.
With the death of JV Stalin began a new era in the life of society, the literary process revived: writers once again became the spokesmen of popular thoughts and aspirations. This period was named after the book by I. G. Ehrenburg "Thaw".
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