The stylistic characteristic of the variant forms of the name...

The stylistic characteristic of the variant forms of the numerals name

The variability of the case forms of numerals in modern United States is due primarily to the development of analyticism in their declension. According to Academician V. V. Vinogradov, the old language technique comes into conflict with the new principles of understanding and expressing the abstract concepts of numbers and quantities, and, subject to the influence of mathematical thinking, numerals unify their forms. There is a redistribution of the functions of quantitative and ordinal numbers: instead of declining forms of ordinal numbers, quantitative in the initial form are increasingly used. See, for example: I live in apartment 31 - options: thirty-one - thirty-first; Went by train 75 - options: seventy-five - seventy-fifth; From house # 1 - options: number one - number one. An obvious preference is given to the first options, however, at the beginning of the 20th century. in such cases, as a rule, the ordinal number was used: the package from the house died first; tent number two; thread number fiftieth.

The proliferation of symbolic number designations and the associated standardization of speech are due to the influence of the mathematical language, where non-inducible forms of numerals are fixed in combinations of typing: ten plus one ; exactly five ; plus six . From professional speech, indeclinable variants of numerals pass into colloquial and literary language. Even poets pay tribute to this influence:

Brick shells. And then

Cubic souls hang at home.

The soul of the mosque, the souls of two huts,

Soul number is seventeen fraction twelve .

They are remembering smoke ...

(A. Voznesensky)

Publicists like to use catchy encrypted The names formed with postpositive quantitative numerals in the initial form: International exhibition "Sviaz-2010" was opened in Moscow at the All-United States Exhibition Center. The laconism and expressiveness contribute to the consolidation of constructions of this type, cf .: exhibition " ; Equipment and technological processes of communication production 2010 - Connection-2010. The productivity of such combinations is due to the proliferation of denominations in which quantitative numerals are used as code (scientific and technical) determinants: Algol-68, uranium-235, ka- two-meson, station "Zond-Z". The need for marking models: aircraft - IL-96, TU-204, Boeing-777, of vehicles - MAZ-500, ZIL-5301 ( bullhead ); VAZ-2101 ( kopeck ); spacecraft, satellites - Vostok-6, Proton-500, Ariane-5, Luna-21, Lunokhod-2. Despite the existence of variants of the type TU-two hundred four - Tu-two hundred and fourth, we prefer a shorter and simpler, with unchanged forms of quantitative numbers.

Some numerals in colloquial speech cease to decline or lose their former diversity of case endings. Thus, in the declination of the numerals, only two forms stabilized by our time: in all indirect cases, except for the accusative, 100, in the nominative-accusative - one hundred. Other forms were archaized and found among writers as an exception: ... six submachine gunners - here they are, marching meters away from me (M. Sholokhov); Paid a piece of stoi rubles (V. Panova). However, even at the beginning of the last century, scientists recommended to decline one hundred for all cases.

The inconsistency of numerals and the deviation from the inflexibility in the formation of composite, compound and fractional numerals have become a characteristic feature of colloquial speech. For example, the expression meeting with 5574 soldiers is usually read like this: with five thousand five hundred and seventy-four fighters; it is quite common and such forms: The report is printed in the number of five hundred to six hundred copies ; work on twenty-nine topics. Distributed and such glued of education: The transfer of a 150 thousandth car is read as one hundred and fifty thousandth; Fielders are waiting for a 350-centner harvest - read: three hundred and fifty-cent. Of course, all these options should be regarded as not justified in the literary language.

However, in written speech, you can sometimes meet concessions vernacular in the case of the lettering of the numerals: Only in one day of the battle at Prokhorovka our tankmen destroyed more than four hundred fascist tanks (gas.). Errors of this kind are not frequent, because the letter uses the numerical designation of compound numerals. However, it provokes in oral speech the erasure of the case forms of numerals and the indecisiveness of the first word-numerals in complex formations or at the junction of the first words of the compound numerals.

The development of analyticism in the decline of numerals is clearly reflected in the fixing of non-fax forms in prepositional combinations: in the distribution turnover with the pretext to , the rule for oral speech was a combination of five rubles, seven people, several days; in the numeral many both forms are equal: for many and in many ways. Variations five, five hundred seventy-eight, because are perceived as bookish, and variants by stu, hundred, ninety, are distinguished by archaic coloring. Along with the common forms of the instrumental of the numerals, eight, eighty there are books that become obsolete: eight, eighty. As conversational and literary, one should consider variants of the type 50 - fifty , etc. The desire to unify the forms of oblique cases in such numerals also indicates the development of a tendency to the indecision of this part of speech.

Other variants of case forms of numerals appear under the influence of analogy. Thus, in common speech, compound ordinal numerals in the accusative with the preposition are used with the variable first word one thousand, although only the last word should be inclined. For example, you can often hear: in the year nineteen forty-five - instead of: in one thousand nine hundred and forty-five; or: to the thousand nine hundred and ninety-seventh year - instead of: to one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seventh.

The new millennium has long been a working chronology, but many non-normative variants of using compound ordinal numerals are still characteristic of native speakers, including journalists. two thousand fourteenth year, two thousand fifteenth year, two thousand fourteenth year, two thousand and fifteenth year (normative literary version) - two thousand fourteenth year, two thousand and fifteenth year, in two thousand fourteenth year, in the year two thousand and fifteen (a typical non-normative variant).

The words both, both (which are traditionally considered in the numeral, although they are analyzed in the composition of pronouns in some university textbooks), when the female form forms a declension: the literary - both, both , etc. and colloquially-colloquial - both, both etc., where the difference of the female gender is lost. The expansion of forms of the masculine gender in this case linguists pointed out in the last century, predicting unification in the declension of this numerals, but in the book styles, the forms that differentiate the masculine and feminine gender are still the only correct ones.

Variants of case endings of the names of numerals arise as a result of inconsistent reflection of the animation category. Of the quantitative numerals only the words two, three, four, used with the animated nouns have the accusative case similar to the genitive: met two friends and three girlfriends, consulted four students; cf .: read two volumes, three pages, four poems. True, if in such quantitatively named combinations nouns call not individuals but living beings, then the category of animation in the numeral may not manifest itself: On them he traded greyhound three dogs (A. Griboyedov); ... paid for two horses (L. Pushkin). Such variants of case forms of numerals have a colloquial coloring. When using compound numerals with animate nouns, the stylistic evaluation of the accusative case forms varies - the literary norm corresponds to a design that does not reflect the category of animation: register twenty-three deputies; the design place twenty-three people in the hotel has a conversational nature.

Some common mistakes in the choice of noun forms used in combination with numerals should be prevented. Thus, for numerals that call fractional or mixed numbers, the noun is put in the singular, the genitive and as a controlled form should not change when the quantitative-nominal combination is declined: one tenth of a second, five and three tenths of a second, from one tenth of a second , to seven tenths of a second, with three tenths of a second , etc. However, it is often possible to observe the incorrect use of noun forms in such, for example, combinations: by 126.7 percent; for 40.0 seconds - the noun is controlled by a fraction, therefore it should be in the form of a single number: by 126.7 percent; in 40.0 seconds.

In combination with the word one and a half ( one and a half) ) the noun is used in the form of the singular genitive case, if the numeral numeral stands in the nominative-accusative case: one and a half minutes; in other hopes, the numerals must agree with the noun that receives the plural form: to 1.5 liters, 1.5 liters, about 1.5 liters. The same rules govern the use of nouns with a numeral a hundred and fifty.

It should be borne in mind that some numerals in oblique cases can only agree with the names of nouns, but also manage them, acting as a separate countable word. Therefore, in speech there are such, for example, combinations: with two hundred cards (alongside: with two hundred cards ) , with three hundred prostrations (not bowing ) , a village with three thousand inhabitants. Of these, only those with the words thousand, million, billion, are stylistically neutral, while others (with the element one hundred ) have a colloquial coloring.

In phrases denoting dates , the numeral name controls the noun, which, accordingly, should not change when the combination is declined: May Day, congratulate on May Day , etc. Combinations of the type to the first April are estimated as colloquial.

Thus, with a small number of words that make up the part of speech that we have examined, it differs by a significant variety of synonymous forms, stylistic variants that deserve close attention both in terms of studying the resources of morphology, and in preventing morphological-stylistic errors in speech .

It should be emphasized that the use of numerals in speech causes considerable difficulties. For example, there are errors in declination: These people are allowed to part-time, so long as the total amount does not exceed three hundred rubles (need: three hundred ) ; The self-supporting brass bands in our republic are one and a half hundred (follows: one and a half hundred ) ; At four hundred and sixty sites are all prepared for a meeting with voters (correctly: four hundred sixty ). There is a mixture of the foundations of the male and female genes in the numeral both - both, cf .: The two-edged sword, he was beaten both (instead of: both (meaning ends ))) ; In deriving the equation, we assumed that in both frames the size of the light clock is the same (it follows: in both ). Sometimes, but an error, collective numerals combine with feminine nouns: Fourth young workers assigned another professional grade (correctly: four workers ).

It is often incorrect to use the case form of the noun in phrases that denote dates in which the numerals always control the genitive case of the second word: The administration promises to eliminate wage arrears by December 15 (instead of: December ) ; By the first May , one-time payments will be made to labor veterans (instead of: May ) ; The letter was dated on the twenty third of December 1943 (followed: December 23, 1943 ).

Counting names of nouns are involved in the system of numerals, however their use in speech is not always stylistically motivated, as they often introduce unwanted primitive coloring into the text: At present, pair tick-borne (need: two ... cranes ) ; The diploma was awarded to Anna Fedorovna Golubeva, who will soon be eight tens (need: which will soon celebrate its 80th anniversary ).

In the literary editing of the manuscript, it is necessary to carefully check the correctness of the digital notations and, in necessary cases, justify the preference for the verbal denomination of the number, control the use of decimal and simple fractions, while avoiding disagreement.

It should be remembered that in the designation of mixed numbers (integer and fraction), the noun is controlled not by an integer but by a fraction. This rule is violated in such, for example, proposals: The number of unemployed in the FRG has reached 2,131,828 people, which means that the unemployment rate has increased over the month from 8.4 to 8.6 percent (follows: percent ) ; Head of the Department of Trade and Services of the city of Moscow explained that only 19.2 thousand tons of milk powder ( ) were imported.

There are often mistakes in the choice of the case form of a numeral in a phrase with an animate noun, which require stylistic editing:

1. On helicopters, twenty-two wounded were delivered to the hospital.

1. ... delivered twenty-two wounded.

2. The battalion commander could not tell about this calmly: how many comrades he lost in battle!

2. ... how many comrades he

lost in battle!

3. For the whole day, we caught only two cancers and three lines .

3. ... caught two cancers and three lines .

The category of animation manifests itself only with the use of numbers two, three, four when referring to living beings.

Here are some examples of stylistic correction of speech errors caused by incorrect formation of collective numerals (from two-digit and three-digit numbers), as well as violation of the harmonization standards in the quantitative-nominal combination:

1. We worked without rest 23 days .

1. We worked without rest for 23 days (23 days).

2. For work lessons, you need to buy a 34 scissors .

2. For work lessons, you need to buy 34 pieces of scissors .

3. In the 24 mitts package.

3. In the package 24 pairs (two dozen) mitts .

4. A 22 sleigh stretched slowly by a long string .

4. Slowly moving a long string of 22 sledges .

5. 274 days conducted Papanin on the drifting ice.

5. Nine months the Papaninians conducted the drifting ice.

6. The garage was built in one and a half hundred meters from the house.

6. ... in one and a half hundred meters from home.

7. We had to wait up to one and a half hours .

7. ... to one and a half hours .

In conclusion, we note that since numerals are often transmitted numerically in written speech, one should pay particular attention to "sounding" texts of this kind.

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