The word-formation structure of a derivative word, The concept...

Derivative structure of the derived word

The concept of word-building structure of a word

§ 170. In word formation as a section of linguistics, or derivatology, derived words (or derivatives) are studied from the point of view of their derivational (derivational) structure. In the synchronous, or descriptive, word formation, the word-formation structure of a word is studied in a synchronous plan, from a synchronic point of view. The synchronous word-building structure of a word can be defined (in the most general form) as a relationship of the basic elements of the derived word, i.e. its immediate constituents, - the producing (word-formative) base and the word-formative (word-formative) formant. With a deeper synchronous word-formation analysis of the derivative of vocabulary, some features of the direct components of the derived word, its generating base and formant are also taken into account, namely: the composition of the producing base (the presence of one or more generating words or bases), part of the speech of the producing words that make up the production base , the composition of the word-formative formant (the number of constituent basic word-building means and their form-suffix, prefix, flexion, etc.), a concrete material embodiment formant (for example, the substantive suffix -ist, -nik-, -tel , etc.). In addition, the word-forming semantics of the analyzed derivative words, their derivational meanings are taken into account. Thus, the methods of synchronous word formation of derived words, their derivational models and types are determined.

Speaking about the synchronous word-building structure of a derivative word, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that it is far from always possible to unambiguously determine its word-building structure. Among the synonymously derived words there are also those that are characterized by the multiplicity of the word-formation structure, or the nonuniqueness of word-formation motivation, i.e. are multi-structural, multi-structural, or polystructural. To the difference-structured are such synchronically derived words, which are directly motivated by different producers, differ from each of them by a single word-formant. For example, the noun inequality is directly motivated by the simpler (in the formal sense) noun equality (inequality - lack of equality) and the adjective unequal (inequality is the presence of a sign, denoted by adjective unequal ). In the first case, the noun inequality is perceived (and is considered in modern linguistics) as a pre-existential prefixal derivative, in the latter case - as an octadecitive suffixal formation. It refers, respectively, to different derivational models and types.

The main, central issue of the synchronous analysis of the word-building structure of derived words is the question of the way they are formed. Often, the synchronous word-formation analysis is limited to determining the word-formation method of the words being analyzed. Less often, in the case of synchronous word-formation analysis, attention is drawn to other characteristics of derivatives, their word-formation models, word-formation types are determined. Let us consider in more detail the question of the methods of word formation (from the synchronic point of view).

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