Walking Hegumen Daniel - History of Old US Literature

Walking Hegumen Daniel

Already in the 11th century, United States people's journeys to the Christian East began, to "holy places". These pilgrimage journeys (a traveler who visited Palestine brought a palm branch with him, pilgrims were also called calipers - from the Greek name of shoes - kaliga worn by a traveler) contributed to the expansion and strengthening of international ties of Kievan Rus, contributed to the development of national identity.

However, secular authorities tried to impose their veto on pilgrimage, when it began to acquire a massive character, causing a serious damage to the princely economy. Gradually, the prohibition spread from the laity to the monks, who were told "not to seek salvation and God" by their feet, but by rigorous performance of their duties and vows at home. Requests of people who are deprived of the opportunity to visit Palestine, satisfy the description of travel-walking. So, at the beginning of the XII century. there is the "Journey of the Hegumen of Daniel to the Holy Land."

Hegumen Daniel made a pilgrimage to Palestine in 1106-1108 years. Daniel undertook a long journey, "his thought is restrained and impatient", wanting to see the "holy city of Jerusalem and the promised land", and "for the sake of holy places This is all written in the form of a clearing of your own. " His work is written" for the sake of mankind ", so that when they hear of the" places of these saints ", rushed to these places with thought and by the soul and thereby accepted the "from God equal to the bribe" with those who "came up to these holy places." Thus, Daniel gave his "Walking" not only cognitive, but also moral, educational value: his readers-listeners should mentally do the same journey and get the same benefit for the soul as the traveler himself.

Walking Daniel is very interested in the detailed description of the holy sites and the personality of the author himself, although it begins with etiquette self-deprecation.

Telling about a difficult journey, Daniil notes how difficult it is to "test and see all the holy places" without a good "and without the knowledge of the language." At first, Daniel was forced to give from his "khudo extraction" to people who know those places, so that they can show them to him. However soon he was lucky: he found in the monastery of St. Savva, where he stayed, an old husband, "Velmi book," who acquainted the United States hegumen with all the sights of Jerusalem and its environs.

Daniel finds great curiosity: he is interested in nature, the layout of the city and the character of the buildings of Jerusalem, the irrigation system of Jericho. A number of interesting information tells Daniel about the Jordan River, which on one side of the coast is gently sloping, and on the other - steep and resembling the United States river again. The United States pilgrim himself "measured and bitten" this famous river, "perebreda" [/ it from one shore to another. Wishing United States readers a more vivid representation of the Jordan, Daniel repeatedly stresses: "Everyone is like the Jordan to the Revenge of the Mysteries and wider and deeper and slyly flows and quickly, like the Snov River." low trees growing on the bank of the Jordan, Daniel says that they resemble our willow, and the shrubbery is a vine, but immediately hastens to clarify: "... but like a vine like a vine, somehow akily ( dogwood) like is .

Apparently, the United States hegumen did not fail to drink Jordanian water, then wrote: "The water is turbid and sweet thread, and there is no sychi that drinks that holy water; no one to be sick, no mischief in the womb of a man. "

He describes the fertility of the Jerusalem lands, where the "good is born", since the earth is good and prolific, and the field is red and smooth, and near its fi rm many are high and every The tree of the prolific is the essence. " The island of Samos is rich in fish, and Ikos is cattle and people, notes Daniel.

Daniel aspires to convey to his readers the feelings that every Christian experiences when approaching Jerusalem: these are feelings of "great joy" and "tears of shedding". More Hegumen describes the way to the city gate past the pillar of David, the architecture and size of the temples. So, for example, the Church of the Resurrection, Daniel writes, "is round in a way, all-caking" (i.e., on all sides, a sloping one) and in both the precursors (across) > And the Church of the Holy of Holies is from the Resurrection farther away, "As a double-shot can be." This church is "marvelously and slyly created", > is decorated from the inside with mosaic and its beauty is unspeakable; in a round-shaped manner; from the outside written sly and unspeakable; walls to it are beaten by marble marble of another marble ... " Ibid., notes the hegumen, there was the house of Solomon, " his building was strong and great and beautiful and red. Moshen was able to eat marble slabs and eat on mosquitoes is authorized, and the water is full of the house-from was ".

Two miles from Jerusalem is a small town of Bethany. It is located behind a mountain in a flat place, and in the small town, to the right of the gate, there is a cave where Lazar was buried.

As the researchers note, Daniel's descriptions allow us to establish a fairly accurate topography of Jerusalem at the beginning of the 12th century.

A great place in Walking legends that Daniel either heard during his travels, or subtracted in written sources. He easily combines in his mind the canonical writing and apocrypha. So, Daniel with full conviction writes that outside the wall of the Church of the Resurrection behind the altar there is a "navel of the earth", and in 12 sazhens from him there was a crucifix where there is a stone exceeding the height of the spear with a hole of depth in elbow; in this hole and was inserted a cross on which they crucified Christ. Under this same stone lies the head of Adam, and when Christ was crucified, the stone cracked and the blood of Christ washed Adam's head, that is, all the sins of the human race. The credibility of this fact Daniel is in a hurry to back it up with a purely annalistic device: "And there is a gap on that stone until the day." The apocryphal legend cited by Daniel illustrated the Christian dogma of the ransom sacrifice of Christ and was fixed by ancient United States painting.

Though Daniel's attention is absorbed by religious questions, this does not prevent him from recognizing himself as an authorized representative of the United States land in Palestine. He proudly reports that his, the United States abbot, was received with honor by King Baldwin (Jerusalem during his stay in Daniel was captured by the Crusaders). He prayed at the Lord's grave for the whole of the United States land. And when the lamp, set by Daniel on behalf of the whole of the United States land, was lit, and the "flask" (Roman) was not lit, he sees in this a manifestation of God's special mercy and favor to the United States land.

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Thus, a journey undertaken for a purely religious purpose, with its patriotic pathos, echoes the annals and other works of the 11th-12th centuries.

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