WORD OF EDUCATION AND GRAMMARIAN STYLISTIC
As a result of studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• criteria for stylistic evaluation of word-building means of the modern United States language;
• conditions that determine the coexistence of grammatical variations;
• factors ensuring the accuracy and grammatical correctness of written and spoken speech;
• Specificity of the stylistic evaluation of syntactic units;
• communicative conditioning of the choice of stylistically neutral or stylistically marked word-formative and grammatical means
be able to
• Differentiate normative and non-normative word-formative and grammatical linguistic facts;
• evaluate the dynamic phenomena of the functioning of the grammatical system of the modern United States language;
• establish the conditionality of the choice of word-formative and grammatical variants;
• determine the features of grammatical usage;
• the basis of the stylistic differentiation of word-formative and grammatical linguistic units;
• Various grammatical-stylistic means of communication in the process of their professional and pedagogical activity
• The skills of analyzing the derivational and grammatical language phenomena of the modern United States language from the synchronic and diachronic points of view;
• The criteria for the stylistic appropriateness of using stylistically neutral and stylistically marked word-formative and grammatical units.
Stylistic evaluation of United States word formation
Stylistic potential of word-building means
United States language is distinguished by an exceptional wealth of word-forming resources, which have a bright stylistic coloring. This is due to the developed system of United States word formation, the productivity of appraising suffixes, which impart to the words a variety of expressive shades, and the functional-style fixation of some word-building models.
Word formation causes stylistic interest in the following cases:
1) if the motivated word takes on a stylistic coloring that is not characteristic of the motivating word: daughter (diminutive) - daughter ; engineer (simple) - engineer
2) if affixing contributes to the functional-style fastening of the word: demand (general) - request (officer-deed); sewing - tailoring (special); buckwheat - buckwheat (rag.); gift - with a simple (simple), gift (rude, simple);
3) if the features of word formation limit the scope of the use of words that are used only in dialects or get a professional or slangy hue: strawberries - strawberries (dial.); whistle - whistle ( all upward ) (prof.); cartoon - cartoon, toon (frog);
4) if the features of word formation cause the archaization of a word that yields its place in the active lexical stock to a synonym with other affixes: daring (obsolete) - impudent; Georgian ( Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, Persians were crowded on ... square (A. Pushkin)) - Georgians
5) if word formation is used as a source of verbal expression when creating occasionalisms: large noise ( oak forests ) (A. Pushkin); pancake (A. Chekhov); Proxied (V. Mayakovsky).
It is important to emphasize that only synchronic word-building is of stylistic interest, since it reflects the correlation of motivated and motivating foundations, and the stylistic evaluation requires a clear perception of the word-building structure of the word of interest. Let us dwell in more detail on the stylistic resources of word formation in modern United States.
Word formation in United States is a bright source of verbal expression due to the richness and diversity of evaluation affixes. In different parts of speech, the evaluation created by affixing manifests itself in different ways.
The strongest expression is possessed by suffixes of subjective evaluation of nouns. From nouns that are neutral in an emotionally expressive way, by affixing one can form those who have a bright estimated value: house - house, house; brother - brother, brother, brother; hand - pen, hand. Similar nouns get a diminutive value, usually with a hint of positive evaluation. Next to such nouns are often used appraising adjectives: one word as if infects (according to AA Potebni) another: a small house, a gray-haired old man.
In the composition of size-appraisal suffixes, there are also enlarged: house - domina, dom; children, knives. They, as a rule, include a shade of negative evaluation.
Suffixations are distinguished:
a) with a steady humorous coloring: paperwork, knizhenstiya, oldenness
b) Collective nouns with characteristic suffixes that express disregard: soldier, sailor, patsanyo
c) abstract nouns which, due to suffixes, receive a negative evaluation value: sleeping, bustling, sour, vulgar, galling, whining, boring, laughing.
Various expressive shades of negative evaluation express suffixes indicating the category of the person: imagined, sang along, reveler, crook, wimp, stranger, werewolf, dodger, trickster, slobbery, lackey. True, some words with such suffixes, expression is erased and only the colloquial color is preserved: bearded, strongman, grammethod, tramp.
In United States, the exclusive wealth of expressive shades is characterized by the suffixes of nouns that denote a person: girl - girl - girl - girl - girl - devonka - girl - girl - a virgin; old man - old man - old man - old man - old man. United States word formation allows stringing affixes of subjective evaluation, so that the "expressive stress of a word can be expressed in doubling, tripling suffixes" ;: dochurochka, babulentsiya, krokotulechka, dandy, shame.
Interesting in the stylistic plan and the prefixation of nouns. She owes her expressiveness to such words as beauties, superhumans, superdlinas, ultramodas, extras. However, the prefixal way of word formation is inferior to the suffix in terms of the number of productive models and the richness of expressive shades.
For the word-formation of the names of adjectives, it is also highly characteristic to express various estimates using affixation. The suffixes of subjective evaluation that have positive emotional coloring are different: small, tiny, negative emotional color: fidgety, tall, overwhelming, chilly. Expressive prefix formations of adjectives, indicating the degree of manifestation a sign that is omnipotent, omnipotent, pre-brained, prescient, cheerful, strident. The word-formative models of adjectives such as cute-cute, long-predalgic, which point to a strong manifestation not a sign.
Generally, numerals do not form expressive forms by affixing. The only exception is those that combine the meaning of numerals and other parts of speech. Thus, the words thousand, million, billion, preserving the grammatical attributes of nouns form the forms of subjective evaluation: thousand, million. In the composition of indefinite-quantitative words combining the functions of the names of numerals and adverbs, suffixal expressive formations are not uncommon: a little, a little, a little, little, too much, too little, a little bit.
Among pronouns , you can specify those who, due to suffixes, receive an expressive color: all, nashensky, nothing, nobody, takovski. All of them are reduced, and some express irony, neglect .
In the stylistic derivation of adverbs reflects the patterns of affixation of those parts of speech with which they are correlative: row, in a bite, vprisyadochku, quite a while, not far, polegonku, very early, little, little by little, , in nashenski. Individual word-building models are typical only for adverbs: after, first, in the second.
Verbal word formation is inferior to the nominal in strength of expression (compare "strange" word from V. Khlebnikov: To whom, how important was the lady! ). However, among the verbs, we can distinguish a number of interesting word-formation models with a bright stylistic coloring. As a rule, expressive verbs formed from pronouns: yakat, poke, vykat ; interjections: aah, moan, meow, yap -, from the nouns and qualitative adjectives that have an estimated value: bazaar, roar, fool, rude, hunt, cheat, lazy, ape, mock.
Among the verb malformations, the reduced verbs are productive, - begin: to be active, to diplomatize, to mock, to sycophant, to adhere to principle (their additional semantic nuances are 'disapproval', 'censure').
Another productive model is the verbs on -it, formed from the names of nouns: bullet, feather. They also stand out in a reduced color. The verbally-colloquial character distinguishes between verbs like inhibit, speculate.
For the verbal word-formation, it is very characteristic that the style is reduced by adding the postfix -s, which in this case does not affect the verb's lien: ring ( ) , turn green, blush, loiter, promise, see off.
In the arsenal of word-forming means of the verb, prefixing takes a big place, which often makes changes not only in the semantics of words, but also significantly enhances their expressive coloration, transforming the verbs of interstyle into colloquial and even colloquial: spend - spend it, - be smart - get involved - get out.
Among the numerous prefixal vertex formations, special attention is drawn to those that have strong expression, although they are formed by a combination of neutral bases with neutral affixes: run, run, run away, go away, walk away, laugh, earn, grab, restrain etc. The prefixes create a special expressiveness of such verbs, indicating a high degree of intensity of action or a variety of shades of its manifestation (exhaustion, limitation, etc.) and giving words to a reduced y, conversational coloring.
In addition to the significant parts of speech, the stylistic activity in the affixation process is manifested by interjections and particles . Many of them get a vivid expression due to the suffixes: the bait, the bayunyushki, the hunter, the frogs, the agunushki, ainky (the particle a ) , netushki, thank you and etc. To these emotionally colored words adjoin also isolated forms of the changed parts of speech, transformed as a result of expressive suffixation: spatenka, potyagushki, potyagushenki, potyagunyushki. These words are used only in oral speech with expression of affection, and usually with appeal to children.
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