Conceptual form in the sphere of management
Formal logic studies ways of organizing thoughts, distracting from their specific content. This circumstance gives rise to wits to assert that such a logic allows "to deduce meaningless consequences from empty premises". By now one of the modern authors reasonably objects: "The form is always a little content, and the content is always in some way a form." And this is so if you penetrate into the essence of the form. We already know that form is a way of internal organization of content. Here every word is weighty, but we make a logical emphasis on the internal of the organization - in order to emphasize that the form is not indifferent to the content and especially not alien to it, it is only mentally distracted, but in fact, extracted from the content. "The distinctive being of form," wrote the outstanding United States thinker SN Bulgakov, "is realized precisely in action, that is, incarnability, and why one can not talk about an incorporeal form, distracting from what it takes out. " In other words, the distraction is conditional.
What does this have to do with management? Direct! The conceptual form (for all its universality) in its specific applications reveals the diversity of its functional capabilities. Take, for example, the concept of management & quot ;. There are many definitions of this concept, one of which is given in the introductory topic. It is significant that in it management is considered as a function of various kinds of systems - biological, social, technical, - ensuring the preservation of their specific structure, maintaining the mode of operation, implementing the program, the purpose of the activity. Reproducing this definition, we in this case make a logical emphasis precisely on the qualitative heterogeneity of systems. Obviously, the same control function is implemented in them in different ways. Accordingly, technical norms and rules differ significantly from biological or social regulators. In turn, and in social management there are many specifications of this function: economic, political, legal, moral, religious, aesthetic, etc.
Logical analysis of the concept of "management" allows us to solve a very urgent problem of the ratio of general and special. In fact, this is the question of the applicability of the general meaning to a particular case, to a specific situation. Ideally, the best solution would be to identify in a particular (in specific situations) the general meaning and detail of the general meaning in particular (with reference to specific situations). It is no accident that the great German philosopher G. Hegel (1770-1831) called Frederick the Great "philosopher's king", having in mind primarily his ability to think and act strategically, ie, guided by general principles in solving specific problems: "... He made for himself the principle in all his actions and in all his institutions, an absolutely common goal, the good, the benefit of his state, by contrasting this principle with treaties with other states, with particular rights in his own state, subordinating them to themselves and for the common goal. "
In our case, - as applied to the concept of "management", - there are some discrepancies between the general meaning of the concept and its specific applications to particular situations.
Today, there is much talk about management in various natural, social, technical, scientific, educational and other fields. At the same time, management activities are often considered only in the context of solving specific problems without a clear understanding of the very phenomenon of governance. This process is sort of pulled apart in parts, without having a holistic understanding of its essence. There is a paradoxical situation when, figuratively speaking, we have the presence of rays without their source - the sun itself, we work with consequences in isolation from their causes. Logical analysis allows you to refine the content and scope of the concept of "management" using its nominal and real definitions.
The situation is aggravated by the confusion of the concepts management and management & quot ;. Let's start with management. The nominal definition of this concept is associated with the Latin manu agere - point by hand & quot ;, respectively the United States tracing paper - guide as a synonym for "management."
The English term to manage means "manage". An unfolding-invariant translation reveals the meaning of a nominal definition of how to "know", "seek," "manage," "the art of regulating."
Old French m & eacute; nagement means art to accompany, guide & quot ;.
The Italian maneggiare is literally translated "to rule the horse". Associatively in this concept, they make sense - "to master the art of achieving the goal."
Management is a complex phenomenon, which is treated very widely and covers a huge range of different types of human activity: from production to political, from sports to financial, etc.
But initially this word as a theoretical concept (Latin conceptus - concept) was formed on the basis of experience in production and economic management, and only then was extrapolated to other areas of social relations . Extrapolation is the dissemination of conclusions derived from observation of one part of the phenomenon, to another part of it. Such a procedure with all its fruitfulness is fraught with errors. From the logical point of view, these are the general errors of inductive inference, or more precisely, of incomplete induction, when on the basis of the study of only a part of the elements of the set a conclusion is drawn about the entire set (for details, see Chapter 9). This is especially noticeable in cases when we are dealing with inhomogeneous sets. Obviously, the methods and methods of administration tested in the economic activity of an industrial enterprise are far from being as productive in the management of the troops or in the humanitarian sphere of science, art, education, etc.
In this regard, there is a need to clarify the scope of the concept of "management" taking into account internal specifications. In English-speaking countries, such differences are fixed terminologically. For example:
- manage - manage in the economic sphere (firm, store, wholesale base, etc.);manage in the political sphere (government, regional leadership, etc.);
- to control - manage in the field of technology (machines, technical complexes, etc.).
As you can see, there are logical reasons to consider management as a form of management. In other words, one should agree with those who believe that the concepts "management" and management not identical concepts. Any management is management, but not all management is management.
Management define how professional management of subordinates in the organization, as the process of setting and achieving the goal.
It is distributed primarily to the business (industrial, commercial), as well as used in the service, cultural, educational, research and other processes. The main task of management is to make it possible, on the basis of understanding the main goal of the organization, to create a productive working environment. It is actively and productively working environment encourages workers of any organization to mobilize all their abilities, knowledge, skills and skills to successfully solve the tasks for which the organization was created and functions.
Modern domestic and foreign specialists in the field of management pay attention to this aspect of the problem of improving managerial work. Success in its solution will remain "the main task of management personnel for the next several decades, ultimately, will determine the competitiveness of companies. And, more importantly, it is he who will determine the very structure of society and the quality of life in all industrialized countries. "
With a deeper analysis of the scope and content of the concept, management is divided into general, technical, operational, strategic, production, innovation, anti-crisis, administrative, financial, corporate, personnel, etc. 2 In this classification, management in its general, strategic variety approaches the concept of "management". Although in itself this concept is often used in a broader sense, for example, "control of technology", "biological processes management", "management of thermonuclear reaction", "heredity management", "management of the creative process", state management and so on
In the generalized meaning management is understood the process of purposeful influence of the subject on the corresponding object in the interests of achieving the set goal. A more detailed analysis of the content of the concept of "management" requires consideration of a number of significant features of structural, objective and functional order.
The subject is the governing body that manages the subsystem or the system as a whole. Object - is a managed subsystem (system) that saves or changes its state under the influence of the controlling entity. More fully, this means the development and systematic implementation of the program of action; analysis of the desired result and an assessment of the possibilities for achieving it; choice of rational methods and methods of action; creation and use of the mechanism of implementation of the adopted decision.
Management, carried out in various spheres and at different levels, has its own specifics. It is clear that the management is different in the economy, politics, the social sphere, science, art and the army. At the same time, theoretical comprehension of the practice of management activity allowed us to formulate certain general provisions, guiding rules that represent a kind of algorithm, i.e. a certain sequence of actions, allowing to go the most rational way to achieve the goal. This includes tasks, functions and principles of management.Managing any social system (organization) - whether it's an enterprise, a trading company, a bank, an educational institution, a sports club, a military unit, an administration, a US entity - is called upon to solve certain tasks.
First, management must ensure the effective performance of the organization's mission statement. When it comes to managing a commercial organization, its mission involves achieving certain economic results. If we have a health care institution, then its mission is to carry out disease prevention and quality treatment of people. If it is a structural element of the Armed Forces, then its mission is reduced to accomplishing tasks by purpose.
Secondly, the most important task of management is to ensure the productive and high-quality use of knowledge, skills and skills of active labor activity of its employees. Any enterprise, institution, or any organization has only one genuine resource, creating material and spiritual values - working people. Only through their work can you successfully implement your mission in the activity.
Thirdly, management should be oriented not only to the production of a material product and the rapid receipt of profit, which is often associated with management in the economic sphere, but also on the spiritual component of the production process, i.e. on his direct relationship to the humanitarian sphere. Management deals not only with material things and processes, but first of all with people, their qualifications, spiritual world, world view, life position, value orientations.
The most important task of management is to focus the knowledge of subordinates, obtained in the field of philosophy, economics, sociology, psychology, history, ethics and other sciences, on improving the quality of work. That is why the point of view according to which management is not only science and practice, but also art is spreading more and more widely.
The management algorithm also requires consideration of the specific functions which it is designed to perform. These include planning - the process of formulating the goal, determining the sequence, timing, means and ways to achieve it; organization - uniting the efforts of workers into one, regulating the interaction of people, making work systematic; regulation - redistribution of forces and assets in the course of accomplishing tasks, adjusting pleasant earlier decisions and plans; control - the process of establishing the compliance of the activity of the management object with the tasks assigned and help in correcting the shortcomings.Management, in addition to the necessary knowledge, skills, practical experience, is based on several important principles.
1. In all spheres of activity, the central object of management is a person. Therefore, the main efforts should be aimed at ensuring the joint, well-organized and effective work of people, creating opportunities for them to maximize their strengths and neutralizing their shortcomings. This is the main task of any social organization (industrial, commercial, research, etc.), any social institution, be it a state, culture, science or the system of education.
2. Ensuring the organic interdependence and integrity of the subject and the object of management. In this process, there are two sides. First, the subjects of management are managers, managers, power structures, municipal bodies. Secondly, management objects -organizations, institutions, enterprises, etc.
The effectiveness of management in many ways depends on how management objects perceive the methods and techniques of management influence on them and how they act in accordance with orders, orders, instructions, instructions emanating from power structures.
One should also take into account the fact that the disengagement between the subject and the control object is always relative. So, for example, the head of an enterprise, acting as a subject of management in relation to other people, is simultaneously itself the object of management from, for example, the head of the authority.
3. Ensuring the legal regulation of the creation, functioning and development of the organization (firm, enterprise, institution, etc.). Their activities should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the internal charter (the memorandum of association), the content of which must comply with the legislation of the country and be registered with the Ministry of Justice.
4. Unity of specialization and unification of management processes. Specialization increases its effectiveness. However, this can not always be used because of the wide variety of managerial processes. Therefore, specialization should be complemented by unification, development and application of general management methods.
5. Multivariance of management decisions is dictated by the possibility, if necessary, to choose the most appropriate, rational and effective option leading to the achievement of the goal.
6. Ensuring the stability of the system in relation to the external environment. The stability of a managed system is determined by the quality of strategic management and operational regulation, which determines the best adaptability of the organization to any and, especially unfavorable, changes in the external environment.
7. Mobility of the management process, i.e. ability to adapt quickly to new challenges and demands of life quickly and without special difficulties.
8. Clear wording and bringing to each employee of the mission, for the sake of achievement of which the organization has been created and is functioning. The main efforts of the management of the enterprise, the firm up to the scale of the country, should be aimed at articulating, demonstrating, on accessible arguments (figures, facts) the tasks of this system in real time, as well as for the immediate and further prospects.
9. Creation of opportunities for growth and development of both the organization as a whole and for each of the employees separately. It should be borne in mind that each enterprise consists of employees with different skill levels, knowledge and experience. These people perform different types of work. Therefore, at least three things are necessary:
1) the exchange of information between individual employees and divisions of the enterprise;
2) individual responsibility of each employee for their professional (and even more - for unprofessional actions);
3) creation of conditions and opportunities for promotion of employees along the steps of the professional and service ladder.
10. Application of common management methods, taking into account the historical and national-cultural characteristics of a particular society, a particular organization. Management personnel working in different countries can apply the same methods in their activities. But the way to implement them can not remain unchanged. It must be transformed in a certain way in relation to each country and its culture. The problem is to identify and use elements of the tradition, history and culture of one's own people in order to improve the effectiveness of management activities. And here one can not but agree with the opinion of P. Drucker, a well-known expert in the field of theory and practice of management, who asserts: "The difference between the Japanese" economic miracle " and the current relative weakness of the Indian economy is due to the fact that Japanese managers managed to plant "import" concept of management on their own cultural ground and to ensure that these concepts yield a rich harvest. "
None of these principles, taken by itself, in isolation from all the others, provides effective management. Only taken in the system, in organic integrity, supplementing and strengthening each other, they can create conditions for effective managerial activity in their practical implementation. At the same time, it is important to rely on a clear comparison of actions with the available potential, with all kinds of resources - human, natural, financial, material, social, cultural.
The concept is one of the original universally valid logical forms of thinking. We are aware of the surrounding world and ourselves primarily through concepts that are the logical atoms of our intellectual activity, the pillars of both ordinary and scientific knowledge. NG Chernyshevsky said without a loss that the level of development of science is judged, first of all, by the degree of elaboration of its conceptual apparatus.
In a number of special areas of cognitive and practical activity, particularly in jurisprudence, concepts play a special role, since they possess the dignity of laws and are included in normative acts and regulatory documents.
The initial, generally valid, logical form of thinking that allows one to reflect reality at a rational level of cognition is the concept.
Through the structure of the concept, we come to understand one of the non-fundamental laws of logic - the law of the inverse correlation of the content and scope of the concept that underlies the operation of generalizing and restricting concepts.Knowing the essence, structure, types and relationships between concepts enriches the logical culture of thinking, allows you to freely, competently and accurately apply the conceptual apparatus in the process of everyday communication and performing professional tasks.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay