Distribution of terms in judgments - Logic for managers

Distributed terms in judgments

The term is distributed if it is taken in full, and is not distributed if it is taken in part of the volume. The volume of the distributed term is fully included in the scope of the other term or completely excluded from it. The volume of the undistributed term is partially included in the scope of the other term or partially excluded from it. The distributed term is indicated by the + symbol, undistributed by the - symbol.

Consider how the terms are distributed in the judgments A, E, /, O.

Judgment A (All 5 are P). Take Aristotle's reasoning: "Anyone who has thought about the art of managing people is convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of the young". The subject (5) is taken here completely, for it is a question of all people who are discussing the art of management. The precise definition of the subject of thought avoids confusion. It happens that such judgments erroneously qualify as private, motivating it by the fact that "not all the same people are said to". But after all, the subject of thought here is not "people in general", but "people who talk about the art of management". The predicate of this statement (P) - "those who are convinced that the fate of empires depend on the education of young people" is a sign that can be attributed to other categories of people , very far from thinking about the art of management. And since in this judgment it is taken partially (in relation to only one category of people), it is not distributed. In Euler's circular schemes, the ratio of terms is as follows:

And in all other cases (with the exception of allotting judgments), the same ratio of terms will be used in general statements: 5 - distributed, P - is not distributed.

In allotting general validative judgments (All 5, and only they, there are P) the volumes of the subject and the predicate coincide, and, respectively, both the term is distributed. With such judgments, as a rule, we meet in correctly formulated definitions, but not only. For example, the proposition: "All the doctors (5) give the oath of Hippocrates (P)" is not a definition, but the sets of people called doctors (5) and people giving the oath of Hippocrates (P) coincide.

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Judgment E (None 5 is P). Great things are not done right away. (Sophocles). Both the subject ( great deeds ) and the predicate ( what is done at once ) are taken in full, excluding each other. Both terms are distributed.

Judgment /(Some 5 are P). In almost all cases, the most difficult is the beginning of " (J.-J. Rousseau). The subject and predicate of this judgment are taken in part - not distributed. After all, "the hardest thing in business (5) is not only in the beginning, and "start" (P) is not always easy. The diagram shows that the terms are only partly included in the volumes of each other and do not completely exclude each other.

In private and private statements (some 5, and only they are P) the subject is not distributed, and the predicate is distributed: rulers are kings & quot ;. Here the predicate "kings is fully within the scope of the subject rulers & quot ;.

Judgment About (Some 5 are not P). Most votes are not incontrovertible evidence " (R. Descartes). The judgment subject ("votes in support of something") is not distributed as it is not fully understood. A predicate ("incontrovertible evidence") is distributed, being completely excluded from the part of the votes that constitute the majority.

In highlighting privately negative judgments (Some among 5 is not P) the subject is not distributed, and the predicate is distributed. Some rulers are not kings .

As we see, the distribution of terms in attributive judgments depends on their quantitative and qualitative characteristics. This dependence is expressed in the following rules for the distribution of terms (Figure 4.2).

1. The subject is distributed in general and not distributed in private judgments.

2. The predicate is distributed in negative and not distributed in affirmative judgments.

The distribution of terms in simple categorical judgments

Fig. 4.2. The distribution of terms in simple categorical judgments

3. In the distinguishing judgments, the predicate is always distributed.

For greater persuasiveness, you can use a logical square - a special scheme, the main purpose of which is to clearly illustrate the different types of logical relationships between simple categorical judgments. However, this scheme works well and in other directions, if equipped with additional data (Figure 4.3).

The distribution of terms by logical square

Fig. 4.3. The distribution of terms by logical square

The diagram shows that the subjects are distributed in general judgments (A, E) and are not distributed in private (/, O); and predicates are distributed in negative judgments (E, O) and are not distributed in affirmative (A, D). Using this scheme is simple: you need to set the type of judgment, find the corresponding letter and look at the signs of distribution in the nearest 5 and P.

thematic pictures

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