The laws of formal logic
It is impossible to discuss logical or scientific laws with those who deny the importance of the laws of thought.
The world around us is qualitatively defined in the emerging and overcoming uncertainty, consistent in the intervals of gradualness and overcoming the inconsistency of its development, causally grounded and consistent in the struggle and the diversity of contradictions. These essential features of the material world are reflected in human thinking, fixed in such features as certainty, consistency, logical consistency, validity. These essential, necessary, stable signs of thinking find their expression in the form of logical signs.
The concept of a formal-logical law
Prominent French writer-realist L. France in one of his stories describes the following situation. The supreme leader of a certain mythical people needed to solve an important practical task, but he could not find a way to solve it. Assistants, advisers and consultants could not offer the governor anything worthwhile. Then the king was advised to turn to the sage, who has a magic glass, looking through which things, he knows how to act in this or that situation. The wise man was invited to the ruler. Having listened to the essence of the task and the request to help fulfill it, the elder offered a really wise decision. He was generously rewarded, but the supreme leader still could not resist not to ask: what did the sage see in his magic glass? In response, I heard: "Looking at the world through a magic glass, I do not see a solution, but I see the clutch and the interrelation of things". Strength of things - this is an artistic metaphor, but it has a deep philosophical meaning: everything is connected with everything.
Indeed, neither in nature, nor in society there are isolated phenomena. The interrelationship of objects, processes, events, phenomena is universal, universal. It shows that every object, every phenomenon is connected with other objects, phenomena by a multitude of infinitely diverse transitions, cohesions, relations, and that the change of each object, phenomenon is the result of the impact of other objects and phenomena on it.
The interconnections in which the objects of the material world are located are extremely diverse. They can be subjectively assumed and objective, i. E. not dependent on the consciousness and will of people; inessential and essential; random and necessary; secondary and major; transitory and repetitive; limited (private, narrow) and common; fragile and durable; changing and identical, etc. But not all of them possess the dignity of the law.
The law is objective, necessary, substantial, stable, repetitive connections and relations between objects; it is strong, identical, remaining in changing phenomena.
A person is a part of nature, which in its development has risen to such a high level that it has become possible to reflect itself and the surrounding world with the help of the brain - the highest product of the same nature. Therefore, they can not contradict each other in their results and must be coordinated among themselves. In other words, the laws of thought and the laws of development of objective reality are inextricably linked.
The laws of thought have developed in the minds of people as a result of observing billions of times the most common, often occurring, stable links of the surrounding world. The laws of thinking are the same for all people, regardless of their educational level, social status, professional qualifications, age, sex, ethnic or religious background, etc. Of course, representatives of different social groups, epochs, ethnoses, cultures can have their own concepts and special ideas about objects and phenomena. This or that person can sometimes consciously or unconsciously connect his thoughts in reasoning so that the requirements of logical laws will not be fulfilled. But in this case other people will not understand him. Moreover, he himself will not understand his thoughts and will not come to any correct conclusion.
What is the laws of thinking?
Formally-logical laws are necessary, essential, persistent, repetitive connections and relationships between thoughts that persist in any reasoning, regardless of their specific content.
The laws of formal logic are divided into non-main and basic. Non-basic laws are called so because they operate within only certain forms of thinking, logical operations, sections of the spider of thought. With some of these laws, we have already dealt with the consideration of previous topics. For example, the law of the inverse correlation of content and volume extends only to a form of thinking, such as a concept; the law of the distribution of terms acts in the field of utterances and inferences; the laws of terms, premises, figures manifest themselves in deductive logic and, above all, in a simple categorical syllogism. There are numerous laws of mathematical, modal, de-thetic and other logics.
Along with the above, there are also basic laws, that cover all forms of thinking and logical operations with them. Aristotle showed that correct reasoning obeys a small number of basic formal-logical laws that do not depend on the specific nature of the objects of thought in question.
In traditional logic, four basic formal-logical laws are established: identities, non-contradictions, excluded third, sufficient grounds. The honor of the discovery of the first three laws belongs to Aristotle (384-322 BC), and the fourth law to the outstanding German mathematician, logic, philosopher G. Leibniz (1646-1716).
Cultural Thinking is thinking according to the laws of logic. They represent, figuratively speaking, the framework on which consistent, consistent, well-founded reasoning holds, without which our rational activity will be chaotic, incoherent.
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