Logic of communication management in conditions of new opportunities and risks
If the director said: "We will probably not work together with you," - try to persuade him not to leave his post.
Social management is, above all, the area of communication. There is nothing more ordinary, simpler, and at the same time more complex, more beautiful, more dramatic and, sometimes, more tragic than human communication. In it - the source of our joys and sorrows, hopes and successes, victories and defeats. As the German publicist K. Berne (1786-1837) said:
Without a lot of people can do without, only not without a person. "
Communication is a process of establishing and developing contacts between people, conditioned by the needs of their joint activities and including the exchange of information, the development of a unified interaction strategy, the perception and understanding of another person . The process of communication is understood in the broad and narrow sense of the word, as indirect and direct. Communication in a broad sense does not necessarily mean a joint activity. It can be realized in understanding, sympathy, experience, friendship, eloquent silence of lovers, silent reconciliation of spouses.
Communication in a narrow sense is the interaction of people who have common or complementary interests, needs.
Communication mediated can be carried out through computers with anonymous clients, by radio, by phone, by e-mail with certain addressees, etc.
Direct communication is the most important form of business relations. His tasks: to be able to build relationships with different people, achieving maximum efficiency of business contacts.
Communication management contributes to the stability of communication. It is a management system that, through integrated interaction with target audiences, helps achieve maximum efficiency in all areas of the organization's development in a changing external environment.
It is fixed that the representative of the business world for a day says about 30 thousand words during negotiations, talks, speeches at meetings, presentations. And everyone wants the results of communication to be successful. But in order to succeed in communicating with a business partner, you need to understand what his interests are, even if he tries to hide them; consciously, he unclearly formulates his position or simply unclearly expresses his thought; It seeks to cooperate or takes a tough stance with a view to obtaining unilateral advantages. It is important not to bring the matter to the conflict, to find a reasonable way out of the impasse. Despite the seeming commonness and simplicity of human communication, it requires great prudence, for here one can either lose a lot or win a lot.
Misunderstandings and conflicts as a process of life
The nature of communication depends on many factors: the characteristics of the social structure of society, the level of culture, types of joint work, the personal qualities of individuals.
The most important function of communication is to achieve mutual understanding and, as a result, effective rational activity. Historical experience shows that people want to learn how to get along with each other, to comprehend the delicate art of treatment in everyday business meetings and personal contacts. However, the same experience shows that communication does not exist without misunderstandings and the most acute form of their manifestation - conflicts. The emergence of disagreements indicates the presence of contradictions, the collision of opposing views on the objectives of the activity, on various views on how to solve the problem.
This is especially true for domestic business, which has not yet become civilized. As one of the experts in the field of business ethics and business psychology FA Kuzin points out, the vast majority of our bankers, industrialists and other entrepreneurs are still far from following the principles of business life in a civilized world. Many domestic businessmen care more about their pockets than about their reputation. Hence the cases of unfair performance of obligations, neglect of the partner's interests, and sometimes a frank desire to deceive him.
In essence, conflict and is defined as the collision of oppositely directed, incompatible points of view and vital attitudes associated with negative emotional experiences.
Memories of misunderstandings and conflicts, as a rule, cause unpleasant associations: misunderstanding, sometimes, unsuccessful attempts to prove one's rightness, resentment, hostility, threats. As a result, the opinion has emerged that interpersonal and intergroup discrepancies are an exclusively negative process, which is a sign of poor management and ineffective activity of the organization.
Today, it becomes more and more obvious that even in the most organized collectives misunderstandings and conflicts are inevitable. Disagreements are an indispensable attribute of social interactions of individuals, groups, communities. Clashes can be initiated by the struggle of the individual for their rights, the need to defend themselves against someone's attacks, the selfish and criminal interests of individuals, groups, states. It is important to understand the causes of conflicts and learn how to manage them. In the second half of the twentieth century, a special area of knowledge emerged - conflictology, which took on the task of a comprehensive and in-depth study of the phenomenon of disagreement in communication. It was this science that for the first time drew attention to the dialectically contradictory nature of conflicts, singled out not only negative, but also positive functions in them.
The negative role of disagreements in society is as follows:
• Participation in the conflict requires great expenditure of physical and spiritual forces, energy, means to the detriment of the main work;
• The conflict often leads to a deterioration of the moral and psychological climate in the team, a decrease in the level of discipline, the dismissal of employees;
• The clash of opinions and interests sometimes leads to ideas about supporters of the opposite point of view as enemies;
• The end of the conflict sometimes weakens the degree of cooperation, complicates the restoration of business relations.
However, it is necessary to recognize some positive aspects of the conflict:
• during the resolution of the conflict, the tension between the parties to the dispute is reduced;
• it becomes possible to get new information about the opponent, see it from a different angle;
• In the face of inter-group interests, cohesion within the organization grows;
• the establishment of contradictions in views, opinions, attitudes serves as an incentive for change, development;
• the opportunity to express one's point of view leads to the removal of the submission syndrome in subordinates;
• The nature of the behavior in the conflict allows you to identify, recognize, analyze opponents.
Conflicts by their meaning for the organization, as well as ways to resolve them, are divided into constructive and destructive. For constructive conflicts are characterized by disagreements that affect the fundamental aspects of the life of the organization and its members. The resolution of such conflicts leads the organization to a new, higher and more effective level of development.
Destructive conflicts can be generated by secondary, private, subjective disagreements of individuals, which leads to negative, often destructive consequences, which sometimes turn into squabbling and other unpleasant phenomena. A variety of destructive conflict relations is intrigue - intentional dishonesty of people to force them to take certain actions and cause damage. All this sharply reduces the efficiency of the work of individuals and groups as a whole, destroys and depletes resources instead of involving them in the constructive process of optimal cooperation.
List all the causes of misunderstandings and conflicts in communication is not possible. However, based on the combined assessment of specialists, conflicts can be generated by the following circumstances.
First, the failures in the labor process, which arise from small errors and accumulate here and there: then they forgot to specify the goal; they did not pay attention to deviations during the process; then poorly analyzed; then overly generalized; they began to defend themselves instead of taking into account erroneous actions; then too little or too much planned. As the well-known English physicist U. Kelvin (1824-1907) rightly noted, more ships were lost from errors in logic than from errors in navigation.
Secondly, the psychological characteristics of human relationships, i.e. sympathies or antipathies, cultural, ethnic differences of people, actions of the leader, etc.
Third, the personal identity of the members of the group, for example, inability to control their emotional state, aggressiveness, non-communication, tactlessness, conflictuality of individuals who are members of the organization.
Characteristic features of the conflict personality are:
• Inadequate self-assessment of their abilities and abilities, which can be either overvalued or undervalued;
• the desire to dominate at all costs wherever possible and impossible;
• conservatism of views, beliefs, reluctance to overcome outdated stereotypes of thinking;
• excessive principledness and straightforwardness in statements;
• a certain set of emotional qualities of the person: anxiety, stubbornness, irritability, aggressiveness.
With reference to the conflicting personalities, one can use the thought of the French philosopher-existentialist J.P. Sartre (1905-1980). In his work "Being-for-Others" he talks about the fundamental conflictuality of interpersonal relationships and says that there are people for whom the "conflict constitutes the initial meaning of being-for-others". In the same vein, the great German poet and thinker I. Goethe (1749-1832) expressed: "Conflict can rage and within a person."Fourthly, the formal logical factors associated with the peculiarities of rational activity, when the normative rules of thinking are unconsciously or consciously ignored, leading either to unintentional mistakes (paralogisms) or to deliberate attempts to place one of the disputing parties in a quandary (sophisms ).
It is not difficult to identify other causes of conflicts. It is much more important to learn how to properly evaluate and respond to them. In this sense, the words of the American writer M. Twain (1835-1910) that flaws and bad habits should not be thrown out the window, but a step down the stairs, if we really want to get rid of them, are instructive.
Given the combination of the pros and cons of interpersonal and intergroup differences, a rational response to them should be limited to being guided by the maximin principle, ie. maximizing the positive and minimizing the negative beginning in the conflict. Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, managers and other specialists are engaged in solving this problem. This problem has its own theoretical and practical basis. Obviously, it should also not be decided bypass logic. Logic should help to develop an effective strategy of life behavior, reduce the opportunities for misunderstanding and disagreement, and rational resolution of conflicts in the event of their occurrence.
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