Purely separative reasoning - is a conclusion in which premisses and conclusions are dividing judgments.
Here's his outline:
For example: "You can manage either the human resources (A), or technical or other systems (B)". In working with people, the notion of marriage is not applicable: either the highest level of work (A ,), or we will have to part (L) (from the postulates of management). Therefore, either the highest level of work (L,), or we will have to part with (A) (in working with people), or marriage in the management of technical or other systems (B).
Separative-categorical reasoning - is an inference in which one of the premises is separative and the other is a categorical proposition.
This reasoning has two modes:
1) Modus ponendo tollens (affirmative-denying). His scheme:
For example: Leadership style can be democratic (A) or autocratic (B). The style of this leader is democratic (A). Hence, it is not autocratic (-i & szlig;).
It should be borne in mind that this modus will give a reliable conclusion only if the possibilities in the separation premise exclude each other (strict disjunction);
2) Modus tollendo ponens (denying-approving). His scheme:
The style of leadership can be democratic (A) or autocratic (B). The style of this leader is not democratic (- A). It means that it is autocratic (B).
It should be taken into account that this mode gives a reliable conclusion only in the case when all the possibilities (closed disjunction) are listed in the separation parcel.
A special group of inferences from complex judgments are those that have both separative and conditional sentences in their composition.
Conditional-Inference - is an inference in which one premise consists of two or more conditional propositions, and the other is a separative proposition. It is also called lemma (from Greek lemma - proposal, guess). This name is due to the fact that these assumptions deal with various assumptions and their consequences.
Conditionally separative conclusions on the number of alternatives in a separation parcel are of the following types:
• dilemmas (two alternatives);
• trilemma (three alternatives);
• polylemmas (four alternatives and more).
Typically, in practice, dilemmas are used.
There are four types of dilemmas: two simple (constructive and destructive) and two complex (constructive and destructive).
The dilemma is considered to be constructive (assertive, creative), if its conclusion includes the consequences of conditional premisses.
The dilemma is considered destructive (negative, destructive), if its conclusion includes denials of the grounds of conditional parcels.
A dilemma is considered simple, if the conclusion is a simple categorical proposition.
The dilemma is considered complex, if the conclusion is a complex separation judgment.
Let's write down the scheme of dilemmas.
1. A simple constructive dilemma:
& lt; • Be guided by (A), then people will try to bypass the prohibitions and lose the sense of shame (B). If people impose order with punishments (C), people will try to bypass prohibitions and lose their sense of shame (b) (Confucius).
But the ruler usually instructs (/ 1) or imposes orders with punishments (C). Therefore, people will try to bypass the prohibitions and lose the sense of shame (B).
2. A simple destructive dilemma:
If you instruct virtue and maintain order through the ritual (A), people will know what shame is (B) or behave decently (C) (Confucius).
But the people do not know what shame (- B) and do not behave decently (-1S).
Therefore, the ruler does not admonish virtue and does not maintain order through ritual (-L).
3. Complex constructive dilemma:
If you order orders and impose orders with punishments (A), people will try to bypass the prohibitions and lose the sense of shame (B). If you instruct virtue and maintain order through the ritual (C), people will know what shame is and will behave decently (& pound; •).
But the ruler either punishes (L), or sets an example of virtuous behavior (C). This means that people, bypassing prohibitions, lose their sense of shame (B), or behave (O)
4. Complex destructive dilemma:
When the tops honor the ritual (A), none of the commoners will dare to be disrespectful (B). When the leaders honor duty (C), none of the commoners will dare to be disobedient (/)) (Confucius).
Commoners are irreverent (-B) and disobedient. Therefore, the upper ranks do not honor a debt (-.С), nor ritual (-L).
The ability to operate an output knowledge is one of the most important components of the general and professional culture of a specialist. Deductive logic excludes any vagueness in business communication, ambiguity and inconsistency in the processing of documents, unsystematic use of information.
The quality of the inferential knowledge in the reasoning of logic is second, from the logical connections between simple judgments in their composition.
The most common kinds of inferences from complex judgments are purely conditional, purely separative, conditionally-categorical, separative-categorical and conditional-separative conclusions.
Conditionally categorical inference has two correct modes (two varieties): approver and denier.
The separative-categorical inference also has two correct modes: assertive-denying and negative-asserting.
A conditional-separating (lematic) inference is most often used in the form of a dilemma. There are four types of dilemmas: simple constructive, simple destructive, complex constructive and complex destructive.
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