Subject of Logic, Introduction - Logic for Managers

Subject of logic


The study, which has its object methods and laws of the action of the mind, must in itself be of the greatest interest, at least no less interesting than the knowledge of the laws of nature and its individual entities.

Mr. Hegel

The word logic is ambiguous, and in the field of application it is almost universal. Logic is everywhere, even where it is trampled - in the realm of absurdity.

Today hardly anyone is surprised by the phrase "the logic of the absurd." And not because the modern man is accustomed to oxymorons ("witty nonsense") - to combinations of the incongruous. The simplest way would be to refer here to the gambling thoughtlessness of a postmodern culture man. However, people very far from such temptations found in philosophy of the absurd "pure rationalism, only with a negative coefficient, with a minus sign". In principle, logic is where there is a system. And since the world is structured, it turns out to be a field of logic. We can find logic even in delusions and ignorance, miracles, etc., if they are mutually agreed.

What does this have to do with management? - The most immediate, because management activities are structured and implemented in a structured reality. And by definition, management is a function of the system, ensuring the preservation of its structure, maintaining the mode of operation, the implementation of certain programs and goals. As you can see, management activity is aimed at streamlining, structuring of reality and, as a consequence, is fraught with logic. Moreover, in a sense, it is itself an active logic - a reasonable thought in action.

Of course, there are many things in management that go beyond logic. For example, the role of intuition is of great importance-direct comprehension of truth, without conclusions and proofs. But intuition does not exclude logic. What is given to us in direct evidence, as a rule, requires a rationally structured comprehension and expression. In management there is a lot of pre-logical and supergological, forming an array of implicit, non-verbal knowledge, but it can also become explicit and verbally expressed to some extent. Here it is appropriate to cite the reasoning of the outstanding domestic thinker SN Bulgakov (1871-1944): "Life, as a concrete unity of the logical and logical, of course, remains superlogical, does not fit into any logical definition dealing only with the circuits and schemes , and not with a living tissue, but it does not become antilogical or logically indifferent from it. It gives birth to a thought, it thinks and has its own self-consciousness, it reflects itself on itself. The beginning of the logical has its limits, which it can not pass, but within these limits it dominates inseparably. The alogical is insoluble logical and impenetrable to it, but it is at the same time itself connected by logical. Logical and alogical are conjugate and correlative. ... Thought will be born in life and from life, is its necessary hypostasis. "

Because of the ambiguity of the word logic and in order to avoid confusion, the word usage should be clarified. First, it is customary to distinguish:

1) logic of things as a natural connection between the phenomena of the objective world - is an ontological (being) aspect of logic;

2) "the logic of cognition" as a logical way to truth is the epistemological (cognitive) aspect of logic;

3) "the logic of evidence and denial" as a logical organization of reasoning (actually a logical aspect).

Here we are talking about logic in the third sense (the first and second is the domain of philosophy).

Secondly, the formal and content side of reasoning is singled out in thinking. In a real mental process, they are inseparable, but they are isolated for cognitive purposes. Logic from its inception - from Aristotle to the beginning of the XIX century. studied exclusively the formal side of thinking and was called the formal logic. Beginning with Hegel, the subject of research is not only the form, but also the content of thought in their contradictory unity. This is dialectical logic, a higher type. Its appearance does not mean the complete exhaustion of the possibilities of formal logic, which continues to evolve to this day. In this case, we are dealing with the beginnings of formal logic in its traditional variant, and almost do not touch modern formal logic, called symbolic.

Third, it is necessary to distinguish the natural sanity of a person, allowing him to more or less confidently navigate the world, and spider logic as a theory of thinking. People thought logically long before the theory of thinking appeared, and for the most part they continue to think as if it never appeared. Here it is appropriate ironical analogy of Hegel about the fact that logic allegedly teaches to think. "It's like it's been said that only through anatomy and physiology we learn to digest food and move." But this analogy has a non-ironic continuation: "Just as these sciences are useful for a diet, and for studying the forms of the mind, there is no doubt to recognize an even more important influence on the correctness of thinking." The theory of thinking is only a tool for the thinking person. To use it, you need to think already. Having a good toolkit does not yet make us masters. You can learn all the laws and rules of logic, but never learn to think. From stupidity, as they say, there is no medicine. And then the study of logic is unlikely to change anything. But a stupid person can really help. Here another analogy arises. The hand of the skilled craftsman can draw an ideally straight line. And the schoolboy's hand will do the same with the ruler. This does not remove the differences between the master and the schoolboy, but it shows the usefulness of the toolkit, and not only for the student. In other words, we will talk about SCIENCE of logic. And every science has its own object and object.

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