Application of the principles of sustainable development in transport
The original principles of the "green logistics" on transport developed in direct accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 20-22 of the Agenda, which dealt with the problem of the environmentally sound disposal of various types of waste, including their transportation. The development of appropriate logistics solutions has given rise to a direction that has been called the "returnable logistics" and over time has expanded considerably in relation to its original purpose, including all activities but rationalizing the process of the reverse movement of goods in the supply chain from the characteristic point of their final consumption in order to obtain added value or to destroy them.
Meanwhile, other directions of logistics could not be as easily integrated into the context of the "Agenda" for the reason that decisions aimed at maximizing profits and ensuring economic growth - and this fully applies to solutions in the field of transport logistics - are often contrary to this context. In particular:
- modern logistics, aimed primarily at ensuring the timely delivery and flexibility of transport services, is forced on an ever-increasing scale to use to achieve these goals the least environmentally friendly modes of transport - road and air;
- the use on the transport of the concept of "hub-spoke" (see paragraph 5.5) leads to the concentration of logistics activities in the largest ports, logistics parks and distribution centers. Reducing the total costs, it creates simultaneously extremely high local environmental loads;
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- the trend of stock reduction is increasingly realized within the concept of floating stock, which leads to an increase in the volume of goods "on wheels" and growth in traffic volumes, primarily automotive;
- Even such a trend as the development of electronic commerce, according to some researchers, is environmentally unfriendly, as it contributes to the growth of the market for express delivery services based solely on air and road transport.
Still, interest in green logistics was revived at the beginning of the current pitch, when the polluter pays principle, found not only a broad public understanding, but also a reflection in the legislation of a growing number of countries. The society did not want to spend more public funds to cover environmental costs, due to which the high efficiency of certain sectors of the economy, including transport, was achieved. This was expressed, on the one hand, in the growing number of legislative requirements and restrictions imposed by environmental priorities, and on the other - in the public pressure on business, which required a more "eco-friendly person" and increased attention to environmental values in all areas of corporate activity. Both individual and corporate clients began to pay increasing attention to the ecological quality of consumed goods and services. As a result of the concept of green transport and green logistics have acquired a real market value.
Under current conditions, the principles of "green logistics" are implemented on the basis of two parallel approaches: state and market.
Principles of sustainable development in public administration
The transition to sustainable development in public transport management provides the following main directions:
- toughening of technical standards, introduction of increasingly safe and environmentally friendly vehicles and fuels. An example is the "Euro" standards system developed by the ECE OOP to regulate the environmental parameters of cars. The requirements of this system are constantly tightened: from the level of Euro-1 (1992) to Euro-6, the introduction of which is scheduled for 2014;
- the all-round stimulation of switching of transportations from the ecologically most problematic mode of transport - automobile - to other types of transport. This direction is manifested, in particular, in all possible support at the national and international level for the development of intermodal transport;
the application of the polluter pays principle in the system of transport taxes and charges. For example, in the application of this principle, road transport companies must fully reimburse (due to increased fuel taxes or special environmental charges) the damage to the environment, which is currently being compensated, mainly from budgets of various levels. From the point of view of the concept of sustainable development, budgetary compensation creates unreasonable market advantages for an environmentally unfriendly mode of transport.
The state approach to the implementation of the principles of sustainable development is based on a combination of mandatory requirements and restrictions with incentives that leave market actors the right to choose, but give them certain advantages when choosing the "green" solutions. Thus, the transition to the production and operation of vehicles of increasingly high ecological classes can be carried out both compulsorily - by the gradual commissioning of relevant standards, and on the basis of incentive measures such as preferential taxation or other preferences for operators operating more environmentally friendly cars.
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The state approach is fully implemented in the current White Paper European transport policy. Priorities for environmental friendliness and energy efficiency of transport are central to the document. White Paper contains 40 concrete initiatives that should be implemented on EU transport to eliminate a number of barriers that hinder the increase of people's transport mobility and the growth of the European economy. At the same time, Europe's dependence on petroleum fuel should be drastically reduced, and hydrocarbon transport emissions to the atmosphere should decrease by 50% by 2050 (see box 7L).
Box 7.4. Green priorities of the EU transport policy
Adopted in 2011, the "White Book-2011." To a single European transport space - through the creation of a competitive and resource-efficient transport system is another conceptual document on the basis of which the EU will determine the policy of development of European transport for the coming decades.
White Paper puts a two-fold goal: to complete the creation of a pan-European transport space and sharply reduce the negative environmental effects of transport, achieving by 2050 a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 60%. The document identifies ten main tasks:
1) Halve the use of cars for petroleum fuels in cities by 2030; completely eliminate it by 2050; practically free of urban cargo logistics from C02 emissions by 2030;
2) to ensure the use of eco-friendly aviation fuel in the amount of 40% of their total consumption by 2050. Also by 2050, reduce by 40-50% the toxicity for CO2 of marine fuels;
3) to ensure by 2030 switching 30% (and by 2050 - 50%) of road transport over a distance of more than 300 km to rail and water transport by creating efficient and "green" transport corridors;
4) to complete by 2050 the creation of a European network of high-speed railways. By 2030, their length should be eroded. To ensure, by 2050, transportation of the bulk of passengers traveling over medium distances by rail;
5) to ensure by 2030 the creation of a largely multimodal transport network of the EU, completing its creation by 2050 with the necessary information support;
6) by 2050 to ensure the connection of all base airports to the railway network, mainly - high-speed. Ensure also the connection of the main seaports with the network of freight railways and, where possible, with inland waterways;
7) to introduce until 2020 a modernized air traffic control infrastructure and complete the creation of a single European airspace. Introduce similar systems of traffic control on land and water transport. To implement the European system of global satellite navigation Galileo;
8) by 2020 to create the basis for the formation of a single European multimodal information management system and a system of mutual settlements;
9) by 2050 to reduce practically to zero the death rate as a result of road accidents (road accidents). By 2020, reduce the number of accidents by half. Provide the EU's global leadership in the field of transport security and transport security for all modes of transport;
10) to achieve the full implementation of the principles of "user pays" and polluter pays to avoid imbalances and subsidize environmental damage types of transport activities. Provide sufficient income for future investments in the transport system.
To solve the problems listed in the White Book A list of 40 initiatives was identified, i. directions of concrete actions. Among them, a further tightening of environmental standards, the introduction of "environmental" priorities in the system of payment for infrastructure services, the stimulation of innovation and measures to rationalize transportation, giving an environmental result, etc.
After accepting the White Paper the development of a package of normative legal acts that create the basis for the implementation of its provisions began.
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