Conceptual aspects of the formation and functioning...

Conceptual aspects of the formation and functioning of logistics organizations

Currently, various theories and concepts of the formation and functioning of various economic systems and organizations, including logistics ones, have been developed. These theories are presented in Table. 5.4, ​​the concepts are shown in Fig. 5.10, and the life cycle of the logistics organization is shown in Fig. 5.11.

Table 5.4. Modern theories of the formation of logistics organizations

Theory

Content

Theory of Institutions and Institutional Transformations

The role of organizational factors causing institutional changes is increasing

Flexible institutional structures make it easier to adapt to change

Theory of Reengineering

Reorganization of logistics organization and management on a modern information and technological basis Comprehensive improvement of corporations on the basis of a combination of managerial renaissance and modern concepts Perestroika with clearly defined goals and means

Theory of alliances

Integration of management processes with the creation of diverse forms of horizontal association of organizations Expansion of cooperation among competitors, suppliers and consumers

Organizational potential theory

Logistic system - a system that interacts with sources of resources and with the environment. A close relationship between the nature of external relationships and the behavior of the logistics system, on the one hand, and its internal organization - on the other. Conversions along the chain: changing external conditions - changing the firm's strategy - change of its organizational characteristics - transformation of structure The basis of organizational potential is organizational culture (a set of management personnel, a system of values stey, systems and procedures)

Modern concepts of forming logistics organizations

Fig. 5.10. Modern concepts of the formation of logistics organizations

Organization Life Cycle

Fig. 5.11. Organization Life Cycle

It should be noted that when designing logistics organizational structures, it is necessary to take into account three requirements .

1. The effectiveness of the logistical organizational structure from the point of view of business.

2. Regular updating of organizational structures.

3. Prevention of logistics management structures.

These requirements, according to management experts, define the three "pillars" on which the logistics organization should be built.

1. Breaking old habits: Regular reorganization, creation of experimental structural units in logistics management, concentration of logistics systems in one dimension.

2. Sustainability: dominant values ​​(higher order goals), minimal or simplifying impact on the performer.

3. Entrepreneurship: Scorecards, focused on enterprise and efficiency of the logistics system.

Influence of internal and external factors on changing the structure of logistics systems

Fig. 5.12. Influence of internal and external factors on the change in the structure of logistics systems

The search for forms and methods of implementing the principles of the formation of organizational structures scientifically justified or intuitively led to the creation of certain types of organizational structures that meet the conditions of the external and internal environment of logistics systems. In terms of the level (degree) of differentiation and integration of management functions in logistics management, these structures are divided into two classes: pyramidal (bureaucratic, based on neutralist type of integration) and adaptive (multidimensional, based on a combination of neutralistic and free types of integration). Let us consider these two classes in more detail. The concept of pyramidal (bureaucratic) structures was formulated in the 1900s. German sociologist M. Weber and did not contain descriptions of specific organizations. He viewed the bureaucracy as a kind of normative model, an ideal to which organizations should strive to achieve. In his view, the bureaucratic organizational structure is characterized by a high degree of division of labor, a developed hierarchy of management, a chain of teams (divisions), the existence of numerous rules and norms of staff behavior and the selection of personnel for their business and professional qualities. Weber considered such a structure "rational", since he assumed that decisions taken by the bureaucracy are objective. These structures include linear, linear-functional and linear-staff (Table 5.5) and use them in the logistics system.

Some bureaucratic organizations since the 60's. XIX century. faced with such a situation, when the external conditions of their activities changed very quickly, the technology of the production process developed rapidly. In such a situation, the shortcomings of a bureaucratic management organization began to exceed their merits. Therefore, the harmony of the bureaucratic system began to slow down the interaction of structural units and procedures for working out effective solutions so that the organization could not effectively respond to the changes that were taking place.

In order for organizations to be able to react to changes in the environment and introduce new technologies in a timely manner, adaptive , more flexible organizational structures were developed that better adapt to a rapid change in external conditions and the emergence of new technologies. In practice, these systems have another name - organic systems. These systems are built on goals and relationships that radically differ from those that underlie the bureaucracy. The two main types of adaptive (organic structures) are design and matrix organizations that are widely used in the logistics system. The project organization is a temporary structure created to solve specific logistics tasks. When the project is completed, the team dissolves. The advantage of this structure is that it concentrates all efforts on solving one particular logistics problem.

Table 5.5. Characteristics of the organizational structures used in logistics (linear, linear, linear-staff)

Organizational structure

Advantages and Disadvantages

The linear structure implements the principle of one-man management and centralism, provides for the fulfillment by one head of all management functions with full subordination to him on the rights of one-man management of all subordinate units. Advantages: Simplicity, unambiguous delineation of tasks, competencies, responsibilities, strict management of government bodies, coordination, not causing friction. Disadvantages: the concentration of power in the management elite, weak links between bodies of the same level, a strong load of medium levels, the organization of directive links on a one-line principle

The linear-functional structure implements the principles: one-man management, linear construction of structural divisions and the distribution of management functions between them, democratic centralism - a rational combination of centralization and decentralization. Advantages: a combination of the merits of linear and functional structures.

Disadvantages: inflexibility, stiffness of vertical links, weak connection at one level, competition and resource conflicts

Line-staff structures - a kind of linear-functional structure, where functional units are created at each hierarchical level. Two forms of subordination links: 1) directly to the head of a linear subdivision of a given level; 2) the head of the corresponding functional unit of the higher level.

Advantages: contribute to high professional specialization, standardization, formalization and programming of management processes. Disadvantages: absence of close interrelations and interactions at the horizontal level between production departments, excessively developed system of interaction along the vertical

In the matrix structure , the members of the project team are subordinate not only to the project manager, but also to the heads of those functional departments in which they work continuously. Such a structure allows for some flexibility and coordination of various logistics activities. An adaptive (organic) organizational system includes a functional structure. The characteristics of the functional and matrix organizational structures used in logistics are given in Table. 5.6.

Table 5.6. Characteristics of the functional and matrix organizational structures used in logistics

Organizational structure

Advantages and Disadvantages

Functional structure

implements the principle of separation and consolidation of management functions between structural divisions, provides for the subordination of each linear subdivision of the lower level to several top-level managers implementing control functions. Advantages : differentiation and specialization of management functions, increasing the level of managerial professionalism, centralizing strategic decisions and decentralizing operational solutions. Disadvantages : a complex coordination mechanism, the organization of directive links on a one-line principle, increasing the importance of managers, the complexity of power sharing (plurality of subordination)

The matrix structure implements the principle of the multiplicity of subordination, when the structural divisions of the logistics system, formed according to the linear and functional principles, are distributed (in whole or in part) between the heads of projects (programs), with the keeping of their subordination and the last higher manager.

Advantages : provides the target orientation of the management system, characterized by a high degree of adaptation, organization of directive links on a multi-line principle, savings on the structure with its reorientation, priorities in the use of resources. Disadvantages : the complexity of the separation of power and subordination, competition and conflicts over resources, increased information overload of the management system, high organizational complexity

thematic pictures

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