5.4. Definition and basic principles of the system approach
The nature of the material flow is such that on its way to consumption it passes production, storage, transport links. Organize and direct the material flow of various participants of the logistics process.
The systematic approach , the principle of realization of which in logistics is put on the first place, is the methodological basis of end-to-end material flow management.System approach - This is the direction of the methodology of scientific cognition, based on the examination of objects as systems , which allows you to explore the hard-to-observe properties and relationships in objects.
A systematic approach means that each system is an integrated whole , even when it consists of separate disconnected subsystems. The system approach allows us to see the object under study as a complex of interconnected subsystems, united by a common goal: to reveal its integrative properties, internal and external relations.
The functioning of real logistics systems is characterized by the presence of complex stochastic connections both within these systems and in their relations with the environment. In these circumstances, the adoption of private decisions without consideration of the overall objectives of the system and the demands placed on it may prove to be insufficient, and perhaps even erroneous.
As an example, let us again turn to the scheme of the movement of granulated sugar from the factory to the shops (see Figure 9).
Assume that the management of the plant, without agreement with the wholesale and retail chain, made a decision to introduce powerful equipment for packing granulated sugar into paper bags and subsequent packing in transport carton. The question arises as to how this novelty will be perceived by the entire commodity distribution system, adapted to transportation, storage and execution of other technological operations with granulated sugar packed in bags. It is possible that her work will fail.
In accordance with the requirements of the system approach, the decision on the packaging of granulated sugar at the manufacturing plant should be taken in conjunction with the rest of the solutions, the overall goal of which is to optimize the aggregate material flow.
The system approach does not exist in the form of a rigorous methodological concept. This is a kind of set of cognitive principles, the observance of which allows us to orient specific studies in a certain way.
When forming the logistics systems, the following principles of the system approach should be taken into account:
o the principle of successive advancement in the stages of system creation. Compliance with this principle means that the system must first be examined at the macro level, i.e. In the relationship with the environment, and then at the micro level, i.e. within its structure;
o the principle of harmonization of information, reliability, resource and other characteristics of the projected systems;
o the principle of the absence of conflicts between the objectives of individual subsystems and the objectives of the entire system.
5.5. Comparative characteristics of the classical and system approaches to the formation of systems
The essence of the system approach is clearly manifested when compared with the classical inductive approach to the formation of systems.
The classical approach means a transition from the particular to the general (induction). The formation of the system in the classical approach to this process occurs by merging its components, developed separately (Figure 24).
At the first stage, the objectives of the functioning of individual subsystems are determined. Then, in the second stage, the information necessary for the formation of individual subsystems is analyzed. And, at last, in the third stage subsystems are formed, which in aggregate form an efficient system.
Fig. 24. Sequence of system formation under the classical (inductive) approach
In contrast to the classical, the system approach assumes a sequential transition from the general to the particular, when the analysis is based on the ultimate goal for which the system is created (Figure 25).
The sequence of system formation in the system approach also includes several stages.
The first stage. Determine and formulate the goals of the functioning of the system.
The second stage. Based on the analysis of the purpose of the system and the constraints of the external environment, the requirements that the system must meet are determined.
The third stage. Based on these requirements, some subsystems are formed approximately.
Fig. 25. Sequence of system formation in the system approach
The fourth stage. The most difficult phase of the system synthesis: the analysis of various options and the choice of subsystems, their organization in a single system. The selection criteria are used. In logistics, one of the main methods of system synthesis is modeling.
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