Disciplines of the scientific basis of logistics
The carried out researches and generalizations of a number of works allow to consider that to the number of scientific disciplines that underlie the scientific base theory of logistics, it is possible to attribute first of all the theory of socio-economic systems , the theory of organization, cybernetics as components of the system approach.
As is known, socio-economic systems are the object of study of the theory of systems and have the following features:
1) purposeful behavior in each element of the structure of the socio-economic system, due to the presence in it of a person capable of implementing purposeful behavior;
2) non-hierarchy of the structure;
3) the range of external conditions changing both in terms of quantitative characteristics and composition,
4) restructuring the structure as an adaptation tool;
5) the presence of features of both natural and artificial systems.
Logistic systems and supply chains have all the above features, therefore the general theory of systems, whose task is to develop an isomorphism apparatus in various fields of knowledge and to search for means of integrating science, can reasonably be an element of the scientific basis of the theory of logistics.
Cybernetics is the science of general laws governing the objects of any physical nature, based primarily on the study of operations. Cybernetics realizes the mechanism of purposeful functioning of systems in any sphere of human activity, due to which the entropy is reduced. With the emergence of cybernetics, qualitative changes in management took place, management included such concepts as information, feedback, an information system as a component of management, linking the management system with the managed one.
The theoretical aspect of the organization is based on the principles of cybernetics, the most important of which are the principles: expediency, necessary diversity, emergence, external complement, modeling, feedback, choice of solutions, etc. Designing and functioning of logistics systems and supply chains is based on all specified principles.
The principle of purposefulness means that the organized system strives to achieve the goal. The goal should be set so that it can be quantified. The most common criterion for the operation of logistics systems is logistical costs.
The principle of necessary diversity says that to solve a wide variety of problems, it is necessary to increase the variety of permissible actions in the system. This principle reflects the quality criterion in assessing the options for the division of the whole into parts, when the system is divided into elements, it is necessary to minimize the number of external links by increasing internal ties. This principle is manifested in the construction of supply chains, the establishment of economic ties between individual participants in the chain.
The Emergence Principle, meaning that the system is more than a mix of its parts, underlies the logistics principle of global optimization and is also taken into account when assessing the risks arising in the chain supplies.The principle of external addition, is the need for redundancy of the system as a condition of its reliability and efficiency, is considered in the creation of reserves (reserves) for the smooth functioning of the system.
The principle of modeling means that the complex system can be represented by a finite set of models, each of which reflects a certain facet of its essence. In the studies of logistics processes in supply chains, optimization, simulation and other types of modeling are widely used. Moreover, when modeling the models, it is obvious that stochasticity, uncertainty, and multicriteria need to be taken into account in order to obtain simulation results adequate to real situations.
The feedback principle indicates the need to adjust the input actions in the control process based on the output information of the managed system. This principle underlies the management of logistics processes both at the operational level and at the level of coordination in managing relationships with participants in the supply chain, risks, ordering cycle, etc.
The decision-making principle determines the ability of the system to choose the best behavior, depending on the accumulated information and the specific situation that arose as a result of external disturbances acting on the object. The most common type of problem solved in logistics is the decision to choose the best alternative from several available ones. These are the tasks of choosing logistics intermediaries, alternatives to "do or "buy", the mode of transportation, the mode of transport, the vehicle, the route, the choice of the inventory management strategy, the option of investing in the logistics infrastructure, and many other practical tasks that are solved in different areas of the logistics of the enterprise.Logistics methodology as a system of methods, principles, tools, procedures for investigating logistics processes is based on the provisions of a number of disciplines:
• mathematics (with sections: probability theory, mathematical statistics, theory of random processes, mathematical theory of optimization, etc.);
• Operations research (with sections: optimal (linear, integer, nonlinear (convex), dynamic) programming, game theory, decision theory, queuing theory, stock management theory, simulation modeling, network planning, etc.);
• Econometrics (regression analysis, time series analysis, economic-mathematical modeling, etc.);
• System analysis with verbal (brainstorming, scenarios, morphological analysis, etc.) and formal (combinatorics, topology, etc.) methods;
• Methods and concepts of management.
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