9.5. Drawing management systems of material flows in production logistics
The second variant of the organization of logistics processes in production is based on a fundamentally different way of managing the material flow. It is called the pulling system and is a system of production organization in which parts and semi-finished products are fed to a subsequent technological operation with the previous one as required.
Here, the central management system does not interfere in the exchange of material flows between different sections of the enterprise, does not establish for them current production assignments. The production program of a separate technological link is determined by the size of the order of the next link. The central management system poses the task only before the final link of the production technological chain.
In order to understand the mechanism of the functioning of the pulling system, let us consider an example (Figure 44).
Fig. 44. Drawing system of material flow management within the intra-production logistics system
Suppose an enterprise received an order for the production of 10 units. products. The control system sends this order to the assembly shop. The assembly shop for the execution of the order requests 10 parts from shop number 1. Having transferred 10 parts from its stock, shop No. 1, in order to replenish the stock, orders ten workpieces from shop number 2. In turn, shop number 2, having transferred 10 blanks, orders materials from the raw materials warehouse for the production of the transferred amount also with the purpose of restoring the stock. Thus, the material flow is drawn every subsequent link. And the personnel of a separate shop are able to take into account many more specific factors that determine the size of the optimal order than the central control system could do.
In practice, the pulling in-production logistics systems include the "Kanban" system. (translated from Japanese - a card), developed and implemented by the company Toyota (Japan).
System Kanban does not require total computerization of production, but it implies a high discipline of supply, as well as a high staff responsibility, since the centralized regulation of the in-production logistics process is limited. System Kanban allows you to significantly reduce production stocks, accelerate the turnover of current assets, improve the quality of products.
9.6. Efficiency of application of the logistical approach to management of material streams on manufacture
We list the terms of the cumulative effect from the application of the logistics approach to the management of the material flow in the enterprise.
1. Production is market oriented. Effective transition to low-volume and individual production becomes possible.
2. Partnerships with suppliers are being established.
3. The downtime of equipment is reduced. This is ensured by the fact that the workplace always has the necessary materials for work.
4. Improves the quality of products.
5. Reduces the production cycle and minimizes costs.
Let us dwell in detail on the reasons that allow to reduce the costs associated with the production process:
o Stock optimization is one of the central logistics challenges. The content of stocks requires the diversion of financial resources, the use of a significant part of the material and technical base, labor resources. An analysis of the experience of a number of firms in Western Europe using modern logistic methods of organizing production (Kanban's system) shows that the use of logistics can significantly reduce production reserves (up to 50%).
o Reduction in the number of support workers . The lower the level of systemic character, the higher the uncertainty of the labor process and the higher the need for auxiliary personnel to carry out peak workloads.
o Reduce material losses . Any logistic operation is a potential loss. Optimizing logistics operations is reducing losses.
o Improved use of production and storage space . The uncertainty of the streaming processes forces us to reserve large additional areas. In particular, when designing wholesale enterprises, the uncertainty of streaming processes forces the warehouse space to increase by approximately 30%.
o Reducing Injury . The logistic approach organically incorporates a labor safety system.
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