Logistic systems, Concept of the system - Logistics

Chapter 4. Logistic Systems

4.1. The concept of the system

The concept of a logistics system is one of the basic concepts of logistics. There are various systems that ensure the functioning of the economic mechanism. In this set it is necessary to be able to distinguish logistic systems with the purpose of their analysis and improvement.

The concept of a logistical system is private with respect to the general concept of the system. Therefore, we first give a definition of the general concept of the system, and then define which systems are classed as logistic.

In the Encyclopedic Dictionary, the following definition of the concept "system" is given: "System" (from the Greek - the whole, composed of parts, connection) - a set of elements that are in relationships and relationships with each other, forming a certain integrity, unity " .

This definition well reflects our intuitive understanding of systems, but it does not satisfy the goals of analysis and synthesis of logistics systems. For a more precise definition of the concept system we use the following method. Let's list the properties that the system should have. Then, if you can prove that an object has this set of properties, you can say that this object is a system.

There are four properties that an object must have to be considered a system.

The first property (integrity and intersection). The system is an integral set of elements that interact with each other. It should be borne in mind that the elements exist only in the system. Outside the system, these are only objects that have the potential to form a system. Elements of the system can be of different quality, but they must be compatible.

The second property (links). There are significant links between the elements of the system, which with a logical necessity determine the integrative qualities of this system. Connections can be real, informational, direct, reverse, etc. The links between the elements within the system must be more powerful than the connections of the individual elements to the external environment, because otherwise the system will not be able to exist.

The third property (organization). The presence of system-forming factors in the elements of the system only implies the possibility of its creation. For the appearance of the system, it is necessary to form ordered links, i.e. a certain structure, organization of the system.

The fourth property (integrative qualities). The system has integrative qualities, i.e. qualities inherent in the system as a whole, but not peculiar to any of its elements individually.

There are many examples of systems. We take an ordinary ballpoint pen and see if it has four characteristics of the system. The first: the handle consists of separate elements - the case, a cap, a core, a spring, etc. Second: there are connections between the elements - the pen does not crumble, it is a single whole. Third: the links are arranged in a certain way. All parts of the handle can be tied with a thread. They too would be interconnected, but the links would not be ordered and the pen would not have the qualities we needed. Fourth: the handle has integrative (total) qualities, which none of its constituent elements possesses - the pen can be conveniently used: writing, wearing.

Similarly, you can prove that objects such as a car, a student group, a retail distribution network, a real book, and many other objects around us are also systems.

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