16.5. Logistics and scientific and technical development of trade
An essential condition for the possibility of a logistic organization of trade is scientific and technical progress, which is understood as the improvement of its material and technical base corresponding to the socio-economic tasks of trade, the introduction and wide use of progressive technological processes at the enterprises of the industry, to these processes of material and information flows entering the trading enterprises.
The main directions of scientific and technological progress (NTP) in trade are schematically presented in Fig. 76.
Fig. 76. Directions of scientific and technical development of trade
When working with material flows, it is necessary to use technically advanced lifting and transportation equipment and technological equipment. The policy of the technical development of the industry should be based on systemic developments (for example, on the development of a system of machines for the wholesale and retail trade enterprises).
Warehouse fund of wholesale trade should be replenished with wide-shell one-story high-rise buildings and facilities that provide the possibility of applying highly efficient technologies for cargo processing, mechanization and automation of transport and technological processes.
Essential for the logistics organization of trade is the improvement of the tools used to work with information flows, including the use of information systems that provide end-to-end monitoring of material flows.
The provision of trade in labor means (a necessary condition for the possibility of using logistics) is achieved by equipping trade enterprises with the necessary lifting and transport, technological and trade equipment, as well as using the maximum resources of available equipment.
Improvement of used labor includes the use of new types of packaging, the transition to trade in mostly packaged goods and goods bearing a bar code, switching to work with cargo packages also carrying a bar code.
A significant indicator of the scientific and technological development of any industry is the technology used. At the present stage, the degree of progressiveness of the applied technologies at the trade enterprises is determined by the possibility of advancement along the commodity distribution chains of packaged cargoes, the possibility of automated identification of cargo and commodity units, as well as the possibility of intensive information exchange among the participants of commodity circulation.
From the point of view of logistics, the listed areas of scientific and technological progress should develop not in isolation, in wholesale, but in concert: in industrial enterprises, in wholesale, in transport and in retail, i.e. at all participants of the commodity market.
16.6. Efficiency of applying logistics in trade
World and domestic experience shows that the use of logistics can significantly improve the efficiency of trade. Let us dwell on the main terms of the effect.
1. Reduction of stocks in commodity circulation chains due to:
o redistribution of stocks between wholesale and retail trade and concentration of stocks in the wholesale link;
o application of state-of-the-art inventory control technologies
o high degree of coherence of participants in matters of timely replenishment of stocks.
Both current and insurance stocks are reduced. Current - due to the supply of optimal lot sizes. Insurance - due to high discipline of supplies, as well as as a result of concentration of stocks in single distribution centers. For example, if 100 stores merge around one distribution warehouse and concentrate insurance stocks here, then according to the square root law, the total size of the stock without reducing the stability of service will be reduced by a factor of 10.
2. The maximum use of areas and volumes of wholesale and retail trade enterprises. For example, logistic optimization of the chain of commodity circulation will significantly change the structure of store areas in favor of increasing the share of retail space. This can be achieved by:
o drastically reducing the total amount of stocks and moving their significant part from the store to the wholesale link;
o Moving part of the preparatory operations such as packing, marking, pricing, etc., to earlier stages of goods movement.
3. Acceleration of capital turnover. Achieved by reducing inventories and controlling the time of end-to-end processes of placement and execution of orders.
4. Reducing transportation costs , which can be achieved due to the high degree of coherence of participants in the use of transport.
5. Reduction of costs associated with cargo handling , including manual labor costs.
The cumulative effect of the use of logistics, as a rule, exceeds the sum of the effects of improving the listed indicators. This is due to the emergence of logistic systems that are valuable for the market ability to supply the right product at the right time, in the right place at the lowest cost.
In conclusion, we note that logistical optimization of trade is a natural, inevitable way of development of the industry. The use of logistics is already a pledge of the competitiveness of a trading enterprise. Tomorrow it is, perhaps, its main resource.
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