Logistics in the links of commodity circulation - Logistics

16.2. Logistics in the links of commodity circulation

Improvement of logistics in wholesale trade can be carried out in two directions, the first of which provides for the development of wholesale in connection with technical and technological and organizational improvement of the entire system of commodity circulation. The second direction provides for the improvement of intra-warehouse cargo handling systems.

The presence of the second direction is due to the fact that wholesale enterprises themselves are complex warehousing freight processing systems. The application of the logistics approach to the management of commodity flows within these systems is an important component of improving the efficiency of the wholesale link. It should be noted that intra-warehouse logistics in wholesale trade did not have wide development at the onset of market reforms. The level of mechanization of loading and unloading and transport and storage operations did not exceed 11% (food products). Only on a small number of wholesale bases was introduced the mechanization of intra-warehouse works with the use of forklift trucks and the technology of working with packaged goods.

Wholesale enterprises in the process of selling goods can perform work on logistics services: storage of goods, transportation, freight forwarding, packing, processing, sub-sorting, packaging of goods, marking of goods with machine-readable codes. According to foreign sources, in the conditions of the developed market, in the structure of paid services provided by wholesale enterprises, transport services, followed by storage, labeling, sorting and packaging of goods, are in the first place. At the wholesale enterprises of the United States, the above services, with the exception of storage, have not yet been widely developed.

Significant reserves to improve the efficiency of wholesale trade in the United States are related to the improvement of information systems and technologies that support the processes of commodity circulation. At present, the coding and marking of cargo units with bar-code machine-readable codes and, consequently, the automated identification of these codes begin to be applied in trade. Standard EIA labels for cargo packages also begin to be used.

Logistics in retail . Improvement of retail trade, as well as wholesale, from the point of view of logistics should first of all be regarded as the improvement of the chain of the commodity circulation system. The object of rationalization in this case is the whole aggregate of participants in commodity circulation. The retail link is being improved to the extent that it is necessary in terms of the overall strategy chosen to improve the entire system.

Logistic solutions are already taken at the design stage of stores, whose premises must meet the requirements of end-to-end technological processes. Taking into account the interests of the end-to-end technological processes, one should choose:

o the dimensions of the areas of individual rooms and technological zones;

o width of doorways;

o height and area of ​​the unloading ramps;

o Layout of trading floors.

A complex of store equipment should harmoniously fit into the through distribution system.

All the components of the productive forces of the store: premises, technological equipment, personnel, information, goods and circulating containers must be linked into a single system, which, in turn, must be linked to a common commodity circulation system.

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