Logistics providers and outsourcing of logistics services
In modern conditions, logistics operations in most cases are performed not so much by the supplier company itself, as enterprises and organizations specializing in such operations. Specialized companies can perform part of the logistics operations or completely all operations, taking actions on behalf of and on behalf of the principal - the supplier company (cargo owner).
In this case, most often the execution of logistics operations is carried out as if in a combined version. Some part of them is performed by the supplier company. This is the storage and management of supplies in the areas of the supplier, the formulation of all commodity and shipping documentation, often this is customs clearance and insurance, information supply of the delivery. In addition, it is the sender that enters into contractual relations with all enterprises participating in the delivery of goods and pays for their services directly or through intermediary organizations.
Companies that facilitate the delivery of contracts for the sale and delivery of goods to recipients by the supplier company are called logistics providers .
The providers of logistics are companies that facilitate the organization and delivery of goods for international and domestic transportation. It can be transport companies, forwarding companies, brokers (providing freight for the sea tonnage for the client), warehouse, agent (serving shipping companies), companies that carry out customs operations. In other words, these are all those enterprises and firms that facilitate the organization and delivery of goods, their promotion to domestic and international markets.
The main content of transport logistics operations
Delivery of goods from the place of its production to the place of consumption can be divided into two types of operations: transport proper , performed by transport enterprises, and additional operations , covering the complex various, sometimes complex and labor-intensive works connected with cargo transportation, but exceeding the usual functions of carriers.
The most important for cargo owners are freight forwarding operations, since it is freight forwarding services that are of greatest interest to organizations and enterprises. In accordance with international practice, forwarding organizations, firms, companies are called upon to represent and protect the interests of cargo owners. The freight forwarding company, by its status, is obliged to act on behalf and on behalf of the client (cargo owner), organizing the cargo servicing in the process of its delivery and performing a number of operations that the client entrusts to it. The term forwarder appears in the Middle Ages. The word forwarder of Latin origin from expedire speed up.
Currently, in accordance with the terminology of modern management, the term freight forwarding company is increasingly replaced by the terms logistics provider, logistics , logistics partner. No matter what kind of company this company is called. The bottom line is whose interests it represents and protects, in whose name it works and whose orders it carries out.
Currently, they are conventionally divided into four categories.
First level logistics service provider - 1PL (logistics provider), a logistics provider that limits its services to only a small part of operations.
For example, a company works only in one region, is engaged only in warehousing, works only on road transport.
The second-level service provider is a 2PL - a logistics provider that provides a wide range of services at home and abroad.
But it works only as an intermediary, as an agent organizing a chain of delivery of goods. The responsibility for the delivery of the goods is borne by that logistics company, which allowed loss, loss, theft, etc.
The logistics provider of the third level - 3PL is able to solve the tasks of full and complex logistics services, uses any modes of transport, has its own rolling stock, owns terminal complexes in ports or railway stations, owns own warehouses, etc.
This logistics provider assumes general functions for the delivery of goods and is responsible to the cargo owner for their actions and actions of all those subcontractors that were involved in the delivery. In modern law this is called the "presumption of guilt".
Logistics Provider of the fourth level - 4PL - a logistics company capable of performing all that characterizes a third level logistics provider plus "management logistics".
That is, the provider of this level is able to optimize the delivery process of products, based on the wishes of the clientele. These optimization criteria, as a rule, are the speed of delivery, safety or the value of logistics costs.
The most common freight forwarding operations for the maintenance of goods:
• advising clients when choosing the type and means of transport in terms of its convenience, speed, cost and safety of delivery of the goods;
• advising on the transportation route, the type of message, the transport terms of the contract and the basis for the delivery of the goods;
• the organization of delivery of cargo from the warehouse of the sender to the railway station, port, airport (ie to the main transport) or from the station, port, airport to the warehouse of the recipient;
• packing and repacking, marking and re-marking;
• picking of cargo lots, i.e. the consolidation of small lots into a large consignment (sending) for the purpose of the most rational use of the carrying capacity of vehicles and obtaining more favorable tariffs for cargo owners (in most cases the tariffing of small shipments is disadvantageous to the clientele);
• mediation in the conclusion by the cargo owner of contracts with carriers, warehouse companies, ports, insurance companies and in general any enterprises involved in the delivery of goods;
• assistance to cargo owners or execution of customs, sanitary, quarantine, veterinary and other operations related to the delivery of goods on behalf of cargo owners;
• Transfer of cargo to the carrier or its cargo agent (port, pier, station) with execution of acceptance, transportation and other necessary documentation;
• organization of cargo storage in warehouses (possibly in own warehouse)
• the organization or execution by own means of loading and unloading operations at loading, unloading or transshipment of cargo;
• assistance in payments for goods and for performing operations related to the delivery of goods;
• Receipt of cargo at the destination from the carrier or its cargo agent, checking the number of seats, weight, condition of packaging and packaging, and sometimes the quality of the cargo itself with the help of experts (surveyors);
• preparation of claim documentation (commercial acts on shortcomings, surplus, damage to cargo and packaging, re-sorting, etc.) together with carriers or their freight agents;
• production of payments for transportation and handling operations at the points of departure and destination of the goods;
• sorting of large consignments by lots, grades and sizes;
• Organization of personal tracking of cargo during delivery.
Large forwarding companies are not limited to only intermediary operations and organization of delivery of goods, but are also being introduced into the transportation process. In general, freight forwarding companies purchase and operate vehicles, and use it for both domestic and international transport. At the same time, the cargo owner is offered not only freight forwarding services, but also its transportation. Less often the forwarding companies own river vessels, railway platforms or sea vessels. However, this also happens, however, not so often.
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