Main characteristics of transport systems - Management...

Main Characteristics of Transport Systems

A variety of indicators are used to solve the problems of analysis, estimation, comparison, forecasting and planning in transport systems, which can be grouped as follows:

- Equipment performance indicators

- Performance metrics for transport work

- technical and operational indicators

- Economic indicators;

are indicators that characterize the quality of the transport services provided (described in paragraph 6.6).

Equipment performance indicators characterize the composition of the transport system and its potential capabilities. With reference to national and regional transport systems, they are sometimes referred to as indicators of transport security of territories. These are:

1) the length of the communication routes. The physical meaning of this indicator is obvious, however, in each specific case, it is necessary to specify the type of transport communications in question.

Thus, when characterizing the length of motor roads, the total length of public roads, hard-surface roads or highways under the control of the central transportation authorities may be indicated. For railways, it can be indicated as topographic the length of the railway lines, and the extended length - the total length of all major routes (one kilometer of a double-track rail line corresponds to two kilometers of extended length). When characterizing inland water transport, the total length of navigable routes, the length of navigable paths with guaranteed depths, etc. can be taken into account.

The extent of the message path is usually used to characterize the internal transport (Table 2.1).

In air transport, the total length of regular airlines is used.

To measure the transport coverage of the territories, the density indicators of transport networks are used, which are calculated by dividing the length of the transport networks of a region by its area or population;

Table 2.1. Length of transport communications in some regions of the world, thousand km

Transport communications





Roads with hard surface





Common Railways





Inland waterways





2) the number of terminals in the system. This indicator can be estimated in absolute terms, either per unit area, per unit length of the transport network, etc .;

3) Throughput is the maximum number of vehicles that can pass for a certain time through a section of a highway, a railway, a navigable channel, etc. The design (estimated) and actual throughput of the infrastructure does not always coincide. In many cases, due to the deterioration of the technical state of the road section, it is necessary to limit the speed of movement, reduce the time of use of this section, creating the "windows" for repair work, or to close traffic along one of the tracks (in the case of a multi-track railway) or one of the lanes (in the case of an automobile road). All these measures lead to a decrease in bandwidth;

4) carrying capacity is the maximum amount of cargo that can be transported for a certain time along a section of an iron or road, a waterway. The carrying capacity depends on the capacity. At the same time, when the capacity reserves are exhausted, the carrying capacity can be increased if necessary by increasing the permissible limits of the carrying capacity of the used vehicles.

The concepts of throughput and carrying capacity are used to characterize not only the communication routes, but also transport nodes or terminals. In this case, the throughput is determined by the maximum number of vehicles that can be processed at a given facility per unit of time, and the processing capacity of the object is the amount of cargo passing through the peg;

5) the number of vehicles. In different modes of transport, various terms are used to denote the totality of the vehicles used: the park is used for rail, road and air transport, and the fleet uses sea and inland water transport. Accordingly, when assessing the size of the talk about the structure of the park or fleet.

In the process of operation, new vehicles can be purchased, and old ones can be bought or written off. The number of vehicles used is therefore not a constant. Therefore, to characterize the size of the fleet or fleet, either its value at a certain point (usually at the end of the year) or the so-called average number of people, which can be simplified as a half-sum of the numbers at the beginning and end of the calculation period, is indicated. Along with the number, to measure the total power of the fleet or fleet vehicles use indicators of its total or average load capacity;

6) structural characteristics of the equipment. Sometimes, one single indicator is not enough to characterize the transport network or fleet of vehicles. In these cases, structural characteristics based on one or another characteristic are used. In the case of a vehicle fleet or fleet, such characteristics are often the type of vehicles, service life, carrying capacity (Figure 2.3). The structure of terminals can be characterized by their capacity, specialization, etc.

Transport performance measures the amount of traffic planned or actually performed by the transport system. These include the volume of traffic and freight turnover:

1) the volume of transportation characterizes the amount of freight transported. For a single transportation, it is equal to the amount of cargo loaded on the vehicle. For the transport system as a whole, the volume of traffic is determined by summing up the volumes of individual transportations. The volume of traffic is measured in tons or in other units specific for a particular transport system (containers, packages, shipments, etc.).

Structure of the truck fleet in the United States by body type,% to the total number of cars

Fig. 2.3. Structure of the fleet of trucks in the United States by body type,% to the total number of cars

The volume of traffic does not depend on the distance and therefore characterizes the functioning of the transport system not fully. In addition, if you combine the indicators of the completed volume for successive transportation of the same cargo, for example, carried out by three different transport operators, the amount received will be three times larger than the true volume sent from the starting point to the final one. Therefore, to analyze the functioning of transport systems, the turnover indicator is often used;

2) the freight turnover of a particular transportation is defined as the product of the volume of transportation by the distance of transportation, and for the transport system - by summing up the turnover of goods for all the performed transport operations. Tonne-kilometers are the usual gauge of cargo turnover, however, like volume, cargo turnover can be measured in units more convenient for a particular case, for example, in ton-miles, container-kilometers, etc.

Summing up the turnover of goods carried out by different operators, in contrast to the volume of traffic, is correct. In addition, the dynamics of the freight turnover of the transport system approximately reflects the dynamics of its revenues, costs, consumption of fuel and energy resources. Therefore, freight turnover is most often used to compare different transport systems, to assess the distribution of traffic between operators or modes of transport, to analyze the dynamics of transport services markets and to solve other similar problems.

Close to the meaning of the freight turnover is the indicator of transport turnover, which characterizes the work to promote in the transport system not cargo but vehicles. For example, passing a freight train of 100 km is equivalent to 100 train-kilometers.

The average distance of transportation of one ton of cargo - a value that relates the turnover and volume of traffic:

where b - average distance of transportation; P - turnover of goods; About, volume of transportations.

The value of b, sometimes also referred to as the medium range or the transport arm, is the most significant of all factors affecting the technical and operational and economic performance of the transport system.

Volume and turnover indicators are applied not only to transportation, but also to cargo processing in transport hubs, terminals, etc. In this case, they are synonymous (ie, the terms "port turnover" and "port processing volume" mean the same value) and are determined by the total amount of cargo received and shipped within a certain period of time.

Technical performance indicators characterize certain aspects of the efficiency of the use of communication routes and vehicles. The indicators of this group are very numerous, since they take into account the specificity of vehicles, equipment and technologies. The names, the form of construction and the procedure for calculating similar indicators can significantly differ on different types of transport (box 2.2).

Technical and operational indicators are used mainly to analyze the efficiency of the organization of the transportation process and characterize:

- the intensity of the use of infrastructure. To assess traffic congestion, indicators are used such as the volume of traffic or the turnover of goods per kilometer of the transport network. In terms of terminal objects, performance indicators are calculated in tonnes or containers per square meter of the object's area, per running meter of the berth (for port terminals), per unit of handling equipment, etc.

- the total and loaded mileage of vehicles. Typically, when characterizing the transport system, the average total annual mileage of the vehicle and the average mileage with cargo are calculated. A common relative indicator is the ratio of the laden run to the total run;

- the average load of vehicles for a certain period. An example of such an indicator is the ratio of the average actual load on a voyage to the average carrying capacity (load utilization factor);

- speed of movement. For all evidence, the speed indicators are the most diverse in terms of their application and calculation order, even within a single mode of transport. The most common are the technical speed indicators (determined based on the distance traveled and the driving time) and the operational speed (which takes into account, in addition to the time of travel, the time of stops on the route).

From the point of view of transport logistics, an important indicator is the speed of cargo movement on the transport network or the speed of the message, which is determined by the distance of transportation and the time interval between the moment of reception of cargo for transportation and the moment of readiness for delivery to the recipient. The speed of the message may be significantly different from the speed of the vehicles. So, if the technical speed of freight trains is 50-60 km/h, the speed of the cargo message ranges from 10 km/h for small-package cargo to 25 km/h for route freight traffic;

- the number of flights performed for a certain period (or a similar indicator - the time of turnover of the vehicle, ie the time interval between two consecutive shipment). In the constant operating conditions and maintenance of stable cargo flows, the value of this indicator characterizes the efficiency of the organization of transportation. If a large fleet or fleet operates in volatile conditions, the dynamics of the turnover time usually indicates a change in operating conditions, primarily the change in the average range of traffic;

- the amount of cargo transported by the vehicle for a certain period. This indicator is sometimes called output. It can also be determined in terms of one ton of vehicle capacity.

Box 2.2. Peculiarities of calculation of technical and operational indicators for various modes of transport

A principled approach to the grouping of technical and operational indicators and their use is common for different modes of transport. At the same time, the methodology for their definition and application is based on industry specificity, therefore simplified analogies are unacceptable. There is an exact knowledge of the procedure for calculating and using the relevant indicators.

Consider, for example, the load-carrying capacity characteristics that are used to assess the efficiency of vehicle use. A common approach to calculating these indicators is to calculate the ratio of the actual volume of traffic carried to a potential volume (the so-called static indicator) or the actual cargo turnover to the potential cargo turnover (the so-called dynamic indicator). In general, static and dynamic indicators do not coincide. Sang more loaded vehicles operate at relatively large distances, then the dynamic indicator will be greater than static, and vice versa.

The table shows how the relevant indicators are determined by the different types of inland transport in the United States. With a single semantic approach, there are not only terminological but also methodological differences. So, in railway transport, the load indicators of a car are usually calculated for the fleet of cars, and not for a separate car, and do not take into account the average load capacity, since this value varies only slightly for wagons of the same type and remains stable for many years.


Determination order

Rail transport

Static loading of a freight wagon

The ratio of the number of loaded tons to the number of loaded wagons

Dynamic loading of a freight wagon

The ratio of turnover to mileage of loaded wagons

Road transport

Static load utilization ratio

For a separate ride: the ratio of the actual load of the car to its carrying capacity; for the park: the ratio of the volume of traffic to the product of the number of riders and average carrying capacity

Dynamic Load Factor

For a single trip: coincides with a static one; for the park: the ratio of the performed turnover to the product of the number of riders, the average carrying capacity and the average length of the loaded part of the carriage

Inland waterway transport

Load but Send

The number of tons of cargo, which is per ton of registered capacity of one vessel or group of vessels at the time of their departure from the starting point

Load by mileage

The number of tons of cargo that accounts for one ton of the carrying capacity of one vessel or group of vessels, taking into account changes occurring in the route (unloading, loading, etc.)

Load capacity utilization ratio

The number of tons of cargo that accounts for one ton of the carrying capacity of a ship or group of vessels, if the movement of vessels is taken into account not only with cargo but also without cargo

Economic indicators are discussed in more detail in Ch. 3. The main indicators that characterize the economic aspects of the operation of the transport system are:

- the cost of transportation - the cost of the transport operator per unit of transport work performed;

- the average revenue rate - the revenue of the transport operator per unit of transportation work

Comparison of the cost price and the average income rate allows you to judge the profitability of this transport system.

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