Manifestations of the law of continuity of the production...

Manifestations of the law of continuity of the production process

The production process takes place in space and time. The efficiency of the production process is characterized by the duration of the production cycle, the idle time of workplaces and the time spent on objects of labor in production. All three characteristics, especially the last two, strongly depend on the value of the maximum duration of one of the operations, the average duration of all operations and the degree of asynchrony of the duration of operations.

The spatial flow of the production process is characterized by the production structure, the structure of the available resources, the sequence and structure of the labor costs necessary to manufacture the output when the production program of the enterprise is executed.

The change in the organization of the movement of labor objects in time always leads to the same result: to a change in the duration of the production cycle, to the change in the total time of idle jobs and the change in the total time of interoperational tracking of labor items. The actual duration of the production cycle, as compared to the calculated one, is the final evaluation characterizing the level of reliability and quality of the calendar-planned calculations of the production progress.

Minimization of production losses from the total time of idle times of workplaces and the total time of inter-operative monitoring of objects of labor characterizes the level of organization and efficiency of production.

All changes in the organization of the movement of objects of labor in space, in accordance with the law of order of movement, should not violate the unidirectional nature of material flows. Otherwise, the reliability of calendar-planned calculations and the reliability of timely fulfillment of obligations for the supply of products will be lost.

The inter-operative prolezhivanie objects of work and idle jobs in the process of manufacturing products serve as a kind of calendar compensators, equalizing the calendar duration of adjacent technological operations in production areas.

To make the manufacturing process efficient, it does not matter which of the calendar compensators is used in a larger or smaller amount. In the process of production, the time for inter-operative monitoring of objects of labor and the time of idle jobs are contrasted to each other as various calendar compensators, excluding from the production process various elements of production: either the worker and the means of labor, or objects of labor.

Already on closer examination it is obvious that in conditions of inaccurate production, continuous loading of workplaces is preferable. This is also confirmed by a deeper analysis of the production losses from an hour of idle time and an hour of monitoring the lot of objects of labor. In the conditions of in-line production, it is preferable to idle workplaces, since the delay in the movement of one object of labor per hour is equivalent to stopping each workplace of the production line by an hour.

Comparison of production losses from an hour of workplace idle time and from the hour of standing of a batch of labor objects allows us to formulate some rules for choosing rational (effective) methods for the calendar organization of the production process:

• in all types of production, the hour of standstill and the hour of the order of the party of the subject of labor are contrasted not only as different compensators equalizing the calendar duration of operations, but also as different in terms of the magnitude of the loss of production;

• In non-routine production, the production process must be organized according to the principle of continuous loading of workplaces as opposed to the principle of continuous movement of objects of labor in the production line;

• The choice of the principle of organization of the production process (continuous loading of workers or the continuous movement of objects of labor) under specific conditions is determined by the ratio of production losses from idle jobs and from the lodging of labor.

Without giving a conclusion to the conditions of continuity of loading workplaces or the movement of objects of labor in production, we report the final results.

Conclusion 1. To ensure that the production program of the article-closed area with the typical technological route for the manufacture of parts goes continuously at all its jx workplaces, it is necessary to withstand the following continuity condition:

where t kji is the duration of the technological operation performed on i-parts on the j -th machine K of the technological route operation; t (k + 1) j (i-1) is the duration of the technological operation performed on (i) i - 1) th (previous) parts on j -th machine ( k + 1) -th (subsequent) operation of the technological route; Wk + 1, is the minimum shift (delay) of the beginning of the subsequent ( k + 1) operation of the technological route for the production of a set of details i with respect to the beginning k - th (previous) operation of the considered technological route; j = 1, ..., L are the serial numbers of the machines performing the same technological operation of the typical technological route , k = 1, ..., K o - ordinal numbers of technological operations of a typical technological route; i = 1, ..., M are the serial numbers of parts that belong to the same route set and have a common manufacturing route.

According to this condition, continuous loading of workplaces on every operation of a typical technological route can be ensured by shifting the beginning of each subsequent operation of a typical technological route to Wk + 1 (Table 4.1).

From the condition of continuous execution of all operations of a typical technological route at all jx workplaces of the site, you can determine the advance value of the previous operation or the lag value for the next route route operation on W k + 1 .

In Table. 4.1 shows an example of the use of advances for the organization of continuous loading of workplaces allocated for the manufacture of a conditional set of parts.

Conclusion 2. To make each part continuously, without interoperating them, the following condition must be met:

where W i + 1 is the minimum advance of the previous part or the minimum lag of the start of the subsequent part to the first operation of the typical technological route.

According to this condition, the continuous production of each part can be ensured by shifting the beginning of the production of each subsequent part to Wi + 1:

In Table. 4.2 gives an example of calculating the completion time for operations on parts during their continuous production.

Conclusion 3. Minimizing production losses from disrupting the unity of continuous workplace downloads and continuous

Table 4.1. Calculation of the timing of the completion of operations for the manufacture of parts kohmplekt with continuous loading of allocated workplaces

Process Operation Number

W k + 1

Part Number ( i )

Part Number ( i )

Part Number ( i )

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

4

8

10

0

6

1

4

12

22

22

28

29

0

4

12

22

22

28

29

2

0

5

2

4

7

2

0

5

7

11

18

20

17

17

22

24

28

35

37

3

5

10

1

8

2

10

5

15

16

24

26

36

17

22

32

33

41

43

53

4

9

2

12

5

3

8

9

11

23

28

31

39

23

32

34

46

51

54

62

Table 4.2. Calculation of the completion time of technological operations on the parts of the kit during their continuous production

Number

Details

(i)

W i + 1

Operation number ( k )

Operation number ( k )

Operation number ( k )

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

4

0

5

9

4

4

9

18

0

4

4

9

18

2

8

5

10

2

8

13

23

25

5

13

18

28

30

3

10

2

1

12

10

12

13

25

5 + 12 = 17

27

29

30

42

4

0

4

8

5

0

4

12

17

17 + 13 = 30

30

34

42

47

5

6

7

2

3

6

13

15

18

30 + 2 = 32

38

45

47

50

6

1

2

10

8

1

3

13

21

32 + 12 = 44

45

47

57

65

the manufacture of objects of labor is a condition for the most effective flow of the production process - this is the law of continuity of the production process.

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