Methodological apparatus in logistics. Logistic systems and...

Methodological apparatus in logistics. Logistic systems and their formation

Methodological tool in logistics

The object of studying logistics are real and corresponding energy and information flows. These streams on the way from the primary source of raw materials to the final consumer pass various production, transport, warehouse links. With the traditional approach, the tasks for managing real flows in each link are solved to a large extent apart. Separate links represent so-called closed systems isolated from their partner systems technically, technologically, economically and methodologically. Management of economic processes within closed systems is carried out with the help of well-known methods of planning and management of production and economic systems. These methods continue to be applied and with a logistical approach to managing real flows. However, the transition from isolated development of largely independent systems to integrated logistics systems requires an expansion of the methodological basis for managing real flows.

The main methods used to solve scientific and practical problems in the field of logistics include the methods of system analysis, methods of the theory of investigation of queuing operations, expert methods, theory of forecasts, etc. The application of these methods makes it possible to predict real flows, create integrated control and monitoring systems for their movement, develop logistic service systems, optimize inventories and solve a number of other problems.

Decision-making on the management of real flows before the widespread use of logistics was largely based on the intuition of skilled supplyers, marketers, production workers, transport workers. Developing the methodological apparatus, modern logistics, along with the development and use of formalized decision-making methods, seek the opportunities for wide application of the experience of this category of professionals. For this purpose, the so-called expert computer support systems (or expert systems) are developed that allow personnel who do not have in-depth training in logistics to make quick and efficient decisions.

The methodological basis of end-to-end management of real and other flows is a systematic approach, the principle of implementation of which is placed first in the concept of logistics. The system approach is the direction of the methodology of scientific cognition, which is based on the consideration of objects and processes as systems, which makes it possible to investigate difficult-to-observe properties and relationships in processes and objects, and between them. The system approach means that each system is an integrated whole even when it consists of separate subsystems or modules, and also allows you to see the process or object being studied as a complex of interconnected subsystems, united by a common goal, to reveal its integrative properties, internal and external relationships.

The nature of the material flow is such that on its way to consumption it passes production, storage, transport, service links. Organize and direct the material flow of various participants of the logistics process. Therefore, the system approach makes it possible to consider the logistics of flow management as a system defined (by encyclopedia) in the form of a set of elements that are in relationships and connections with each other, forming a certain integrity and unity. In accordance with this provision, four basic requirements for a logistics system can be distinguished.

The first requirement is integrity and divisibility. The system is an integral set of elements that interact with each other. It should be borne in mind that the elements exist only in the system. Outside the system, these are processes and objects that have the potential for the formation of a system. Elements of the system can be of different quality, but simultaneously compatible.

The requirement of connections between system elements with a logical necessity determines the integrative qualities of this system. Links can be real, informational, direct, reverse, etc. In the process-system approach, these relationships are described by models of processes and objects. The connections between modules and elements within the system must be more powerful than the connections of individual elements to the external environment, since otherwise the system will not be able to exist. The exception is the process links of marketing and service.

The requirement of the organizational structure of the system assumes the presence of system-forming factors in the elements of the system necessary to create it. For the appearance of the system, it is necessary to form ordered links: a certain structure, the organization of the system, to implement a certain logistical approach.

The presence of integrative qualities , i.e. qualities inherent in the system as a whole, but not peculiar to any of its elements in isolation and creating new properties of the system, is (especially for human-machine systems) a mandatory requirement.

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