Arranging the delivery of goods by sea during import
Sea trading ports receive from shipmasters or by mail a set of documents for imported imported goods sent from foreign ports. These are bills of lading, manifestos, cargo plans, on the basis of which the goods are accepted and processed.
The port accepts goods at the side of the ship on separate bill of lading lots with counting the number of seats and checking the marking, determining whether a particular bill of lading is related to the given consignment. Further, a complete check of the weight of imported goods arriving in the damaged container, with traces of theft or with a clear discrepancy between the actual weight indicated in the bill of lading, and a selective or control check of the weight of the goods as instructed by the cargo owners. In necessary cases, the experts organize an examination of the qualitative and quantitative acceptance of certain types of goods - citrus fruits, meat, fish products, rubber, vegetable oil and a number of other perishable and special-mode cargoes with the help of surveyors.
Receipt of cargo by the port from the vessel is carried out in the form of a general act, which is drawn up after unloading and signed by the representatives of the port, customs and ship.
The general act is drawn up for the whole cargo arrived on this vessel. It indicates the number of packages that were on the ship according to the ship's documents and the actual number of cargo unloaded and accepted by the port.
In case of damage to the cargo, a discrepancy in its quantity and other shortcomings, an notification is made. It indicates the causes and actual condition of the goods. Such a document is issued for each consignment shipment separately. In addition, provision is made for an act of expertise. In this document, the amount of losses of an organization is determined. The act-examination is compiled by the surveyor on behalf of and at the expense of the foreign economic organization.
On instructions and instructions of organizations of the external economic complex, their representatives in the ports-forwarders call emergency commissioners of insurance companies to draw up emergency certificates for shortages, damage, loss of cargoes and send certificates to these organizations.
Some contracts for the purchase of certain goods provide for their acceptance (on arrival at the port of discharge) in terms of quantity and quality, carrying out laboratory analyzes, examinations, sampling. These operations are organized by forwarders on behalf of organizations and carried out by surveyors.
On the basis of the act of notification, the certificate of expertise and the emergency certificate, the cargo owner can make a claim to the guilty party. The original set of documents should be accompanied by the original of the bill of lading or proof that the ship took the goods on board intact.
The port repairs the packaging damaged during transportation, unloading, storage and loading, and, if necessary, repackages of goods, sorting them by brands and grades if the group of cargoes arrived in a mixed form. Their arrival in a similar kind of port is activated jointly with the customs and ship administration. This work of the port is carried out for an additional fee at the expense of the customer-cargo owner.
Organizations of the external economic complex are required in advance, i.e. before the arrival of the ship with the cargo, send the port a dispatch (in other words, an instruction) for the shipment of the imported goods to the recipients.
The order and name of the ship's arrival, the bill of lading and order number, the name of the cargo, the number of seats, gross weight, the railway and the destination station, the recipient's railway line, consignee, his full postal address are indicated in the order.
Ports control the timely export of imported goods. They immerse, fix and divide the goods sent in covered wagons and on open platforms, complete and ship small quantities of goods.
On shipped goods, ports constitute notices for each sending with the application of railway receipts and send them to the relevant organization of the foreign economic complex. Notices contain the information specified in the order, as well as the date of shipment, the number of the consignment note and the car, the number of seats, the gross weight.
In applications 6-11 (bill of lading, warrant, order, general act, act of notification), the document forms considered in this chapter are presented.
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