Participants in procurement activities and types of economic relations
In addition to the main participants in procurement activities - suppliers and consumers - there are a large number of intermediaries in the supply chains that provide specialized services. These can include physical or legal persons of various organizational and legal forms making transactions both on behalf of producers (suppliers, shippers), and on their own behalf, with the transfer of ownership and without it. Here is a list of such intermediaries.
1. Custodians ( warehouses, public warehouses ) accepting goods under the contract for storage, which are transferred to them by the goods owners (bailors). Commodity Warehouse is recognized as an organization that carries out as an entrepreneurial activity the snoring of goods and provides storage-related services.
It is interesting that the term responsible storage is interpreted in accordance with Art. 514 of the US Civil Code as ensuring the safety of the goods by the buyer in the event that he refuses to receive it, in accordance with the law or the terms of the supply contract. The supplier is obliged to take out the goods accepted by the buyer (recipient) for safe keeping, or to dispose of it in a reasonable time, otherwise the buyer has the right to sell the goods or return it to the supplier. Expenses incurred by the buyer in connection with the acceptance of the goods for custody, its sale or return, are subject to reimbursement by the supplier (deducted from the amount of the goods sold to be returned).
2. Lessor ( landlords ), which provide tenants ( to tenants ) the property in temporary possession (use) for an appropriate fee. Land plots, property complexes of enterprises, buildings, structures, equipment, vehicles and other objects that do not lose their natural properties during their use can be leased out. For example, under a lease (charter) contract for a vehicle with a crew, the lessor provides the vehicle to the lessee and provides services for managing it and for its technical operation.
3. Carriers, providing services for the delivery of goods sent by senders to the destination and their issuance to authorized persons (recipients). The conclusion of the contract of carriage is confirmed by the preparation of a waybill (a bill of lading or another document provided for by the appropriate transport charter or code).
4. Freight forwarders, organizing the implementation of a set of services related to the carriage of goods. The agreement of the transport expedition may provide for the following duties of the freight forwarder:
- organization of transportation of cargo by transport and along the route chosen by the forwarding agent or the client;
- conclusion on behalf of the client or on his behalf the contract of carriage, ensuring the shipment and receipt of the goods;
- the performance of customs formalities, the payment of duties and fees, the receipt of documents required for the import (export) of the goods;
- check the quantity and condition of the cargo, its storage, loading and unloading, etc.
5. Contractors performing certain work on the orders of the customers and delivering their results (including to the regulatory authorities). For example, construction contract may be for the construction or overhaul (reconstruction) of an enterprise's fixed assets, as well as for installation, commissioning and other works. In addition, the contractor may assume the obligation to operate the facility after it is accepted by the customer within the period specified in the contract.
6. Agents representing one of the parties to the agency agreement, which undertakes to pay for remuneration on behalf of the other party ( principal ) legal and other actions both on its own behalf and at the expense of the principal, and on behalf and at the expense of the principal. In the first case, the rights and obligations under the transaction concluded by the agent with a third person arise from the agent, and in the second case from the principal.
7. Commissioners, being one of the parties to a commission agreement, which undertakes to commission one or more transactions on its own behalf and at the expense of the principal, but on the instructions of the other party ( the committent ). Under concluded transactions with third parties, the commissioner acquires rights and obligations.
8. The attorneys are one of the parties to the contract of assignment, which undertakes to perform certain legal actions on behalf and at the expense of the other party ( the principal ), while the rights and obligations under these transactions will be arise directly from the principal.
The set of economic, organizational and legal relationships that arise between suppliers and consumers of goods (works, services) representing the various links of supply chains is called economic ties .
Economic ties can be classified as follows:
- direct, when relations between manufacturers and consumers of products are established without intermediaries, and material resources are transferred from the supplier to the buyer directly, bypassing intermediate bases and warehouses of intermediary organizations ( transit deliveries ) ;
- indirect ( indirect ), when the product can be delivered to the consumer through one or more intermediaries (distributors, agents, brokers). In such cases, the goods are delivered to warehouses and bases of intermediary organizations, and then from them are shipped to the direct consumers ( warehouse supplies ) ;
- mixed ( flexible ).
In addition, economic ties can be divided:
- to short-term, under which the interaction of the supplier and the consumer is irregular and is carried out as one-off supplies;
- long, when the counterparty's relations are formed on a mutually beneficial basis in the form of long-term contracts.
With the warehouse form of the organization of deliveries, the delivery of goods to consumers can be organized as follows:
1) self-delivery, when the receiving enterprise uses its own vehicles or contracts with transport organizations;
2) centralized delivery, when the supplier enterprise and the receiving enterprise create a single body whose purpose is to optimize the aggregate material flow. In this case:
- schemes for the import of products are being developed;
- determine the rational size of shipments and the frequency of delivery;
- the optimal routes and delivery schedules are calculated;
- a fleet of cars and other events are being created.
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