Principle of directionality - Logistics production. Theory and practice

Principle of directness

By straightforwardness is understood such a principle of OP, under which all stages and operations of the production process are carried out in conditions of providing a one-way shortest path of passing the entire mass of objects of labor from the beginning of the production process to its end.

For each typogroup of objects of labor, distinguished by the homogeneity of characteristics, the principle of directionality requires the provision of unidirectional movement along the course of a typical technological route, the elimination of various kinds of "loops" and recurrent motions.

This principle is realized, in particular, in line production and in the creation of subject-closed production sites.

Intraproductional directness is expressed in the unidirectional nature of material flows between production units and within each of them.

Intraproductional directness ( K pp):

Coefficient of intergrinding straightness:

where i = 1, ..., q is the number of inter-shop connections (transfers) between adjacent production units that fit into the standard scheme of the movement of labor items in production (TSD PT); Q is the total number of inter-shop connections.

Coefficient of intra-shop directness:

where i = 1, ..., S are ordinal numbers of intraproduction divisions; О, - total number of operations performed in the i -th production unit for a certain planning period; Q; - the total number of parts returns to the previous operations of the technological route in the i -th production unit.

The direct movement of objects of labor in production is ensured by means of standard technological routes - both intra-shop and interdepartmental ones, connected to unidirectional movement schemes of labor objects. The degree of implementation of the principle of directness in such conditions should be determined by the degree of unification, typification and standardization of technological routes that fit into the standard schemes of the movement of labor objects in production.

Continuity as a principle of OP is expressed in the absence or reduction to a minimum of breaks in the loading of workplaces (workers and equipment) and in minimizing breaks in the movement of objects of labor (ie, and processing expectations).

Only the totality of these two sides of continuity ensures the continuity of the production process. The complete continuity of the production process, the continuous loading of workplaces and the continuous movement (production) of objects of labor are provided only in conditions of continuous-flow production.

In general, one of the sides of continuity is achieved at the expense of the other, i.e. for each specific production process, based on the objectives and current operating conditions of the production process, the priority is determined by one of the parties to the continuity of the production process.

The coefficient of continuity of the production process ( K npp) for the traditional organization of production:

where K нZ - coefficient of continuity of loading of workplaces; К нпт - coefficient of continuity of movement of objects of labor in production.

For the purpose of organizing the production of K npp = K from in the imprecise production and K npp = K npt in line production.

where r i - the calendar limit of the alignment of transactions as a result of the movement of labor items in production; r j - the calendar limit of the alignment of operations as a result of loading workplaces in production; K o - the number of operations in the operational route for processing MKD on the site; C Co - the number of jobs involved in the processing of MFDs in the last group of workplaces of the site; - the number of items to be manufactured on the site , - respectively, the average and the lower of two adjacent intervals through which the transfer of details from j-th to ( j + 1) -th operation of the partial process; T mcd - duration of processing of the route set of parts on the site; сj + 1 - the number of jobs participating in the processing of details on the (j + 1) -th operation of the partial process.

Proportionality as a principle of OP means the consistency of all elements of the production process when they are combined within the framework of the PS under consideration in accordance with their properties: labor productivity, quantity, quality, complexity, etc.

Violation, for example, of productivity requirements leads to calendar imbalances, the formation of "bottlenecks" in production, as a result of which the use of equipment and working time of workers worsens, production reserves increase, the production cycle lengthens, the terms of fulfillment of economic contracts are broken, etc. All this leads to a decrease in production efficiency.

Evaluation of the implementation of the principle of proportionality should be carried out according to the proportionality of the use of individual elements of production (the second-level estimates), and then reduce these estimates to an integral unit index.

Proportionality Ratio:

where i = 1, ..., r are the types of equipment; X i - time fund of available equipment i - of the first kind; Y i is the task of the program on the i-th equipment, h.

The coefficient of proportionality of the use of frames:

where i = 1, ..., r - the serial number (name) of the profession and the qualifications of the workers; X i - actually provided by the existing composition of workers, the amount of work, normo-h; Y i is the amount of work required by the program for execution in the i profession and qualification, normo-h,

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