Project Life Cycle
Among various approaches to the formalization of the life cycle of the project, the most widespread was the option, which includes three stages: initial, intermediate and final.
On the initial stage the feasibility study of the project, the overall planning and development of the project, i.e. the idea of the project is formed, the goals and tasks, possible options for project implementation are determined, for each of them primary estimates are compiled, then the best variant of the project is selected. The results of the initial stage are the expected final results of the project, a list of project options from which the approved option is selected.
Intermediate stage provides for the collection and processing of necessary information. A detailed work plan is being developed. Obviously, under the influence of a large number of factors, identified links, statistical patterns, analogs, expertise, project parameters (duration and volume of individual components, project participants, etc.) that were determined at the initial stage, can be modified. In turn, this leads to changes in costs and timing of the project. Also at the intermediate stage contracts are signed for the implementation of the main activities of the project.
The final stage of the project's life cycle is the economic evaluation of the project, the timing of the project's implementation into the business practice and the transfer of results to the customer.
The logistics project, being one of the types of projects, has a goal, includes planning and implementation activities that direct all activities within the project to achieve the goal and subsequent verification of the project's compliance with the original goals and objectives. When designing a logistics system, you need:
1) clearly represent the purpose and objectives of the logistics project.
2) formulate the concept of the logistics project and plan the actions to implement it.
3) comply with the design time.
4) qualitatively plan project activities, not exceeding the project budget.
Stages of the life cycle of the project allow to form an enlarged algorithm for the design of logistics systems, the stages of which are presented in Table. 10.3.
Features of the design of macro and micrologistic systems
The questions of the direct design of macro- and micrologistic systems in one form or another are found in the works of domestic and foreign specialists.
Table 10.3. Stages of logistics system design
The description and analysis of the problem situation, analysis of external and internal environment
2. Setting Goals
The purpose (goal) of the projected logistics system is formulated taking into account the production of goods (services) and the consumption market
3. Formation of constraints
The stage provides for the identification (formulation) of restrictions: resource, time, functional, etc.
4. Developing criteria for evaluating results
The global criterion (the design efficiency parameter) is the costs of achieving the goals of the logistics system. The system of criteria reflects the quality, reliability of service, the sustainability of service standards at a given level of logistics costs
5. Preparation of the project task. Project development
Technical and working projects (goals, tasks and functions of systems/subsystems); functional and organizational structures of the object and subject of management are designed; the schemes of material, information and financial flows are determined. When creating a logistics system, a modular construction principle is preferred
6. Implementation and Implementation
Transfer of the project to the customer, elimination of deficiencies, approbation
It is believed that in the design of macro-logical systems, three groups of factors must be considered: socio-economic, transport-communication and natural-climatic. It is these factors that determine the main content of the project of the logistics system, in particular the goals and objectives of the macro-logical system, taking into account:
• the state and prospects for the development of the region's economy (the country, several states);
• the characteristics of transport and road systems and complexes, as well as existing logistics centers, the conditions of functioning of the market of logistics services, material and associated flows;
• the presence of telecommunications systems, environmental conditions, etc. In the design of micrologistic systems, a consistent solution of the following tasks is required:
• Definition of the organization's logistics goals;
• development of schemes of main and accompanying flows;
• Definition of the leading logistics link
• optimization of production and warehouse processes taking into account transport operations;
• Logistic integration and coordination of activities of all links of the logistics chain;
• development of a logistics accounting system;
• development of the organizational structure of the logistics operations and functions management system;
• Definition and formation of a system for assessing the effectiveness of the micrological system.
Each manager (logistician) must clearly understand the goals and objectives of the project when designing. This determines the correctness and adequacy of the decisions made, whatever approach the organization takes in designing the logistics system. For example, if the design task is to organize the delivery of goods to consumers in the exact time, then the project objectives should be clearly understood by the manager. Thus, ensuring the delivery in time, the company increases the level of logistics service, which is a condition for loyalty of our consumers, and this, in turn, will ensure an increase in revenues in the long term. And actions within the framework of the project should be directed to the creation and maintenance of the logistic service being formed when designing.
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