Reasons and ways to eliminate inefficient transportation
Irrational transportation is caused by a number of reasons. So, insufficiently correct planning causes a temporary or partial discrepancy between the size of production and consumption of certain types of products in certain regions of the country and is accompanied by irrational, in particular, excessively distant, transportation of goods. Irrational transportation also occurs when the transport factor is not fully taken into account when choosing the site for the construction of new industrial enterprises, when distributing felling areas between forest harvesters, in determining the specialization of production in the metallurgical, oil and other industries, in establishing inter-plant and interindustry cooperation and so on
Disadvantages in the location of the productive forces, including the development of the transport network in the regions of the country, lead to the fact that water transport is not fully used to transport large quantities of cargo (timber, oil, coal, bread, etc.) as well as road transport for the transport of goods on short distances.
Inefficient transportation also causes local tendencies in supplying enterprises.
It is reflected in the rationality of transportation that the production plans for certain regions of the country or for the types of products and transportation plans are not fulfilled, as well as the violation of the normal directions of freight flows on railways and other modes of transport.
Thus, the basis of inefficient transportation is laid down in mistakes made at the location of enterprises, in the shortcomings of the organization of material and technical supply and marketing.
Elimination of all causes will contribute to further progressive changes in the allocation of productive forces, the approximation of energy-intensive industries to the fuel and energy bases of Siberia.
Let's consider ways of rationalization of cargo transportation, laid down in the field of production, distribution and transport.
In the field of production, the reduction of inefficient transportation is facilitated by: the approach of industry to sources of raw materials and fuel, as well as to consumption areas; integrated economic development in the economic regions of the country; increase production of scarce products in areas most remote from sources of supply, and eliminate the remaining partial inconsistency between the size of production and consumption of certain types of products in several regions of the country; the correct specialization of enterprises, taking into account the nature of consumption in the immediate areas; establishment of the most rational inter-plant, intra-district and inter-district cooperation; fulfillment of plans by all enterprises; full and comprehensive consideration of the transport factor in selecting construction sites for the deployment of new enterprises.
In the area of distribution and treatment of the main directions of the rationalization of transportation include the maximum provision of basic products, the correct attachment of consumers to suppliers, taking into account labor and fuel costs for the movement of products from points of production to points of consumption; consolidation of consignments; further development of the network of bases and warehouses in order to reduce unnecessary re-shipment; improving the quality of supply planning and marketing.
Such measures in the field of transport, such as the improvement of the geographical location of the transport network through the construction of new railway lines, highways, the development of new river routes contribute to reducing inefficient transportations; the fullest use of the carrying capacity of the lines in the shortest possible directions; the most efficient distribution of freight turnover between different modes of transport; maximum use of water transport for the transport of bulk goods and road transport for short-haul transport; further development of direct multimodal transport involving various modes of transport; improved transportation planning.
Let's consider in more detail the most important measures for the rationalization of transport.
An important means of rationalizing freight transport and reducing their average range is the "rational allocation of new enterprises" taking into account the transport factor. In particular, it is necessary to take into account the geographical location of natural waterways and strive to ensure that the volume of transport work for the delivery of raw materials, fuel and semi-finished products to points of production and finished products in areas of consumption, as well as operating costs and capital costs of transport per unit of manufactured products as small as possible.
The ratio of transport work for the transportation of raw materials and fuel, on the one hand, and finished products, on the other, determines the most appropriate placement of industrial enterprises from the point of view of transport factor or in a zone gravitating to the areas of extraction of raw materials and fuel or in areas of consumption . This explains the feasibility of locating enterprises with large fuel consumption in the area of coal basins; refineries in areas where oil is consumed; sawmill and woodworking industry in logging areas; creation of a closed cycle in metallurgy (cast iron - steel - rolling); sugar, alcohol, oil plants near sources of raw materials; enterprises of flour-grinding and confectionery industry in the areas of consumption; cement plants at points gravitating to the production of pig iron (for the purpose of using slags that are blast furnace waste and raw materials for cement production); the construction of slate plants in the locations of cement plants.
The construction of mills and elevators is most expedient on the shores of navigable rivers at the points where they intersect with the railways, as this makes it possible to use river routes during the navigation period for mass delivery of grain to mills during the harvest.
Sawmills are advisable to place in the areas of blanks or points of transshipment of rafting from the water to the railway, which, due to the greater transportability of sawnwood compared to the round wood, reduces the workload of railways.
The correct formation of transport and economic relations is of great importance for the rationalization of cargo transportation
The formation of transport and economic relations should be a function of the logistics system, and the planning of freight transport - a function of transport.
The rationalization of transportation is greatly influenced by the choice of mode of transport.
Carrying out technical and economic calculations for the selection of a rational mode of transport for the transport of goods is very labor-consuming, multifaceted, and requires the appropriate qualifications of the executors for making calculations and making decisions.
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