Selection of the carrier, Compilation of routes for road transport - Logistics

11.5. Carrier selection

The choice of a carrier occupies a significant place among the decisions related to the organization of cargo transportation. This choice can be entrusted to the forwarding company or carried out by the company's management independently.

The carrier's choice is performed according to the algorithm below.

1. First, a list of factors that should be taken into account when choosing a carrier is compiled. Domestic and foreign practice in the list includes the following factors:

o freight rate;

o The total time of delivery of the goods;

o Reliability of meeting deadlines;

o the carrier's willingness to negotiate a tariff change;

o availability of additional cargo handling equipment;

o availability of additional services for picking and storing cargo;

o financial stability of the carrier;

o availability of reserve capacity at the carrier;

o Flexibility of transportation routing schemes.

This list is not exhaustive and can be supplemented in accordance with the conditions of a specific economic situation.

2. Then the factors need to be ranked. Ranking is most often performed by expert judgment methods.

3. Carriers are evaluated in terms of the selected factors.

4. Carrier ratings are calculated.

5. A decision is made to choose a carrier.

Let's consider an example of calculating the carrier's rating (Table 18).

Suppose that the logistics department manager decided to base the choice of the carrier on three main factors (column 1):

o tariffs for transportation of goods;

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o The total time of delivery of goods;

o Reliability of meeting deadlines.

The weights of these factors were expertly determined (column 2). The analysis of the transport services market made it possible to identify three companies with which it would be possible to conclude a contract of carriage. Evaluation of these companies on a three-point system (excellent, good, satisfactory), performed on the basis of their commercial proposals, is shown in columns 3, 5 and 7.

The sum of works on column 4 showed the rating of carrier I, column b - carrier II, column 8 - carrier III. As follows from Table. 18, the highest rating is carried by carrier I.

Table 18

Carrier rating calculation

Name

Factor

Weight

Factor

Carrier I

Carrier II

Carrier ΠΙ

score

Rating

score

Rating

score

Rating

Tariffs for transportation of goods

0.5

3

1.5

2

1

1

0.5

Total time of cargo delivery

0.3

1

0.3

3

0.9

2

0.6

Reliability of meeting deadlines

0.2

2

0.4

1

0.2

3

0.6

Overall Rating

2.2

1.2

1.7

11.6. Compilation of routes for road transport

Proper routing of traffic has a significant impact on the total amount of transportation costs. The complexity of compiling rational routes depends on the relative ratio of the capacity of the vehicle and the average volume of one shipment. The smaller the average volume of one shipment of the cargo being transported relative to the capacity of the used vehicle, the more difficult the search for a rational transportation route. In this paragraph, we will consider one of the methods of transport routing in the case when the average volume of one shipment is significantly less than the capacity of the vehicle. In this case, the so-called circular traffic routes are used.

The compilation of ring routes in the first approximation can be carried out by a method known as the Swier algorithm, or the wiper-wiper algorithm (Figure 56). Set the position of the consumer of the material flow in the polar coordinate system. The pole of the system (point 0) will be placed in the location of the distribution warehouse. We choose the initial, zero position of the polar axis φ = 0. The position of the consumer is determined by the distance from the center and the angle φ, which is formed by the polar axis, i.e. ray emitted from point 0 and directed at the consumer.

The essence of Svir's algorithm is that the polar axis, like the wiper blade, starts to gradually rotate counterclockwise, or "clockwise" at the same time from the coordinate field of the consumers of the material flow depicted on it (for example, stores). Once the total amount of orders erased consumers will reach the capacity of the vehicle, the sector served by one ring route is fixed, and a way of detour is planned.

It should be noted that this method gives good results on the Euclidean transport network, i.e. in the case when the distance between the nodes of the transport network along existing roads is directly proportional to the distance in a straight line.

Fig. 56. Decomposition of the transport network when compiling routes for delivery (Svir method)

On ring routes, in addition to restrictions on capacity, additional requirements may be imposed, for example, time limits. If it turns out that the travel time along a certain ring route is more than acceptable, it is necessary to reduce this sector, increasing the neighboring sector accordingly. The necessary sector reduction is also performed if there are other constraints.

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The construction of the next sector begins only after an acceptable circular route has been obtained in this sector. The formation of the annular routes ends when the turnover of the erasing ray.

The Svir algorithm allows you to divide the entire served area into several sectors. Within each sector, the annular route can be compiled by solving various optimization tasks, including the traveling salesman's problem.

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