3.2. Structure of firms and organization of logistics management
Implementing logistics at the micro level inevitably leads to a redistribution of functions between business units. The process of changing logistics functions can be quite painful. The role of some units increases, others lose their significance or disappear altogether.
In order to solve logistics problems, logistics companies are created in firms that can be combined into a single service. For example, in some enterprises, the basic logistics functions are centralized
The logistics service at the enterprise is divided, as a rule, into five main functional groups responsible for transportation, the structure of fixed assets, stocks, maneuvering with material resources, communications and information. In accordance with the appointment of the functional groups, a list of their activities is provided, namely:
♦ Planning and management of warehousing and equipment, distribution centers, warehouse facilities
♦ Transportation - internal, external and international transport, the choice of mode of transport, vehicles and their service options:
♦ Supply of raw materials: the formation of stocks (insurance, preparatory, production) and finished products, processing of returned products:
♦ maneuvering by material resources, their sorting, processing, packaging:
♦ order processing, demand forecasting; planning of production, communication with distribution centers; expansion of the information network of communications; updating the databank.
It should be noted that the formation of functional groups of the logistics service at the enterprise does not correspond to the traditional organizational structures of firms, since all these activities for a fairly long time were delegated to the departments: supply of material and technical resources (purchases) that related to production; processing of orders and communication with clients engaged in marketing; transport operations (existed as an independent); management of warehousing and tare economy (also was independent).
Recently, there has been a tendency to group and centralize the management of the entire logistics system. This approach can remove many conflicts between different functions. In addition, centralization provides certain benefits in the area of consolidation of shipments, more efficient analysis of costs and logistics costs.
The logistics manager is usually responsible for the following range of problems: transport and transportation: inventory control: sales and order management; customer service and warehouse operations in regional warehouses; Warehouse management; research in the field of logistics and system improvement; development of organizational logistics scheme at the enterprise.
Practical achievement of success in logistics . A firm engaged in industrial production or the provision of various services in the logistics system should be guided by the practical achievement of success. For this, each company must comply with four most important conditions:
1. A precise wording and a list of the functions of each individual logistics service employee in the enterprise is needed, namely: job title, organizational links (accountability), responsibilities, responsibilities and rights.
2. The firm must have the necessary information about how many staff members of the logistics service will need in the near and distant future; what knowledge and skills they should possess; which organizations and firms can provide the required number of employees in the near and distant future. In this case, you need the following information: the scope of the proposed work, the scale of the expansion of the firm, the right number of employees, the position in the labor market.
3. The firm must find and select the future manager (employee) of the logistics service for a specific, specific position, and not pick up a post for a future employee. In the latter case, his incompetence can lead to negative consequences.
Mandatory targeted selection of personnel; it is necessary to match the candidates positions for knowledge, skills, competence.
4. When implementing logistics in the operation of the enterprise, it is necessary to train specialists of services related to the processing of flows. A common error of the leadership in this case - the training begins with a grass-roots level. To achieve success in the field of logistics, it is necessary to introduce logistics from management, and managers need to own logistics methods and have logistic thinking (a holistic view of enterprise processes).
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