4.2. The concept of a logistics system
Promotion of material flows is carried out by qualified personnel with the help of a variety of techniques: vehicles, loading and unloading devices, etc. In the logistical process, various buildings and structures are involved, the course of the process essentially depends on the degree of preparedness for it of the most moving and periodically accumulated in the stocks of production. The totality of productive forces that ensure the passage of products is better or worse, but always somehow organized. Essentially, if there are material flows, there is always some sort of commodity distribution system. Traditionally, these systems are not specifically designed, but arise as a result of the activities of individual elements (different enterprises, or units of the same enterprise - see § 1.3).
Logistics puts and solves the problem of designing harmonious, consistent material-conducting (logistic) systems, with given parameters of material flows at the output. These systems are distinguished by a high degree of consistency of the productive forces entering into them in the issues of managing through material flows.
We characterize the properties of logistics systems in the context of each of the four properties inherent in any system and considered in the previous paragraph.
The first property: the system is an integral set of elements interacting with each other. Decomposition of logistics systems into elements can be carried out in different ways. At the macro level, when the material flow passes from one enterprise to another, these enterprises, as well as the transport that connects them, can be considered as elements.
At the micro level, the logistics system can be represented in the form of the following basic subsystems:
PURCHASE is a subsystem that ensures the flow of material flow into the logistics system.
PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION - this subsystem takes the material flow from the procurement subsystem and manages it in the process of performing various technological operations that transform the object of labor into a product of labor.
SALES - a subsystem that ensures the retirement of the material flow from the logistics system (Figure 18).
Fig. 18. Schematic diagram of the micrological system
As you can see, the elements of logistics systems are of different quality, but simultaneously compatible. Compatibility is ensured by the unity of purpose, to which the functioning of each of the elements of the logistics system is subordinated.
The second property (links): between the elements of the logistics system there are significant links that with a logical necessity determine the integrative qualities. In macro-logistics systems, the basis for communication between the elements is a contract. In micrologistic systems, the elements are linked by intra-production relations.
Third property (organization): the links between the elements of the logistics system are arranged in a certain way, i.e. the logistics system has an organization.
The fourth property (integrative qualities): the logistical system has integrative qualities that are not inherent in any of the elements individually. This is the ability to deliver the right product at the right time, to the right place at minimal cost, and also the ability to adapt to changing conditions of the external environment (changing the demand for goods or services, unforeseen failure of technical means, etc.).
Integrative qualities of the logistics system allow it to purchase materials, pass them through its production facilities and issue it to the external environment, while achieving pre-planned goals.
A logistics system capable of responding to the emerging demand by the rapid delivery of the desired product can be compared to a living organism. The muscles of this organism are various technical and transport means, the central nervous system is a network of computers at the workplaces of participants in the logistical process, organized into a single information system. In size, this organism can occupy the territory of a factory or a wholesaler, or it may cover a region or go beyond the state. He is able to adapt, adapt to external disturbances, respond to it at the same pace as events occur.
The common definition of a logistics system is: A logistics system is an adaptive feedback system that performs certain logistical functions. It, as a rule, consists of several subsystems and has developed connections with the external environment. As an industrial logistics system, one can consider an industrial enterprise, a territorial production complex, a trading enterprise, etc. The purpose of the logistics system: the right product, in the right place, at the right time with minimal costs.
The boundaries of the logistics system are determined by the circulation cycle of the means of production (Figure 19). In the beginning, means of production are purchased. They enter the logistics system in the form of a material flow, stored, processed, re-stored and then leave the logistics system for consumption in exchange for financial resources entering the logistics system.
Fig. 19. Identification of the boundaries of the logistics system based on the cycle of circulation of means of production
The selection of the boundaries of the logistics system based on the cycle of circulation of means of production was called the principle of "payment of money - receiving money"; (Figure 20).
Fig. 20. The relationship of the logistics system with the environment. Principle payment of money - receiving money
4.3. Types of logistics systems
Logistic systems, as already noted, are divided into macro- and micrologistic.
The macro-logistics system is a large material management system covering enterprises and organizations of industry, intermediary, trade and transport organizations of various departments located in different regions of the country or in different countries. A macro-logical system is a certain infrastructure of the economy of a region, a country or a group of countries.
When forming a macro-logistical system covering different countries, it is necessary to overcome the difficulties associated with the legal and economic peculiarities of international economic relations, with unequal conditions for the supply of goods, differences in the transport legislation of countries, and a number of other barriers.Formation of macro-logical systems in interstate programs requires the creation of a single economic space, a single market without internal borders, customs barriers to the transportation of goods, capital, information, labor.
Mesological systems - material-conducting systems created by the combined efforts of contractors, connected by economic contracts. Elements of mesological systems, as well as macrologistic ones, are separate organizations. However, if at the level of macrologistics the existence of economic relations between individual enterprises is not mandatory, the mesological system ensures the flow of specific products through a chain of organizations linked by specific contracts.
Micrologistic systems are subsystems, structural components of macro- and mesological systems. They include various production and trade enterprises, territorial production complexes. Micro-logistics systems are a class of in-house logistics systems, which include technologically related industries, united by a single infrastructure.
Within the framework of macro and mesologistics, the links between individual micrologistic systems are established on the basis of commodity-money relations. Inside the micrologistic system, subsystems also function. However, the basis of their interaction is not new. These are separate units within the firm, associations or other economic system, working for a single economic outcome.
Mesologic systems are divided into three types: logistic systems with direct connections, flexible and echeloned (Figure 21).
Logistic systems with direct connections . In these logistic systems, the material flow passes directly from the producer of the product to its consumer, bypassing the intermediaries (Figure 21, a).
Fig. 21. Schematic diagrams of logistic systems of various kinds
Echeloned logistics systems. In such systems, there is at least one intermediary on the way of the material flow (Figure 21, b).
Flexible logistics systems. Here the movement of the material flow from the producer of the product to its consumer can be carried out either directly or through intermediaries (Figure 21, c).
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