Traditional and logistic concepts of production organization
Contents and basics of production logistics
Given that logistics is the science and practice of organizing, planning and controlling the movement of real, information and energy resources in space and time with the conditions of optimal relationships of flow characteristics, then production logistics is one of the functional subsystems of integrated logistics. It solves the problems of organizing the movement of material resources and managing it directly between the stages of the production process, including the supply of raw materials and materials to jobs. That is, it is planning, organizing and managing in-house transportation, storing and maintaining stocks of raw materials, materials, work in progress, production processes for harvesting, processing and assembly of finished products (GP), i.e. as a whole is a regulation of the production process in space and time.
The purpose of production logistics is to ensure timely and rhythmic and economical movement of material resources between stages and workplaces of the main production in accordance with the plans for production and sales of SOEs.
In order to achieve the main goal, the submarines solve complex planning tasks, organize the flow of material flow and operational control of it not only in the main production, but also in the auxiliary and service industries. The auxiliary process includes procedures for the procurement, production and supply of work equipment for the workplace, spare parts for production and maintenance equipment, the supply of electricity, gas, water, steam, lubricants, etc. Servicing processes are associated with ensuring the functioning of technological equipment, carrying out transport and storage operations. In logistics management, the last two are independent logistics.
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The issues of the organization of the labor force and the management of its movement are also interrelated, since the main problem of optimizing production costs is to determine the optimal synchronization of the workload of workers and workplaces with the continuous movement of labor in production.
Production logistics is engaged in the operational planning and management of material and other flows in production integrated with the supply and marketing processes. Modern understanding of logistics, not only as a methodology for managing real and accompanying flows, but also as a concept of system rationalization of stream management in an industrial organization involves the gradual development and formation of integrated management systems based on the principles of synchronization, optimization and integration of all processes occurring in the organization.
In general, the tasks of production logistics concern the management of material flows within enterprises that create material goods and provide services such as storage, packing, weighing, styling, etc. A characteristic feature of the objects of study in industrial logistics is their territorial compactness. In the literature, they are sometimes called the "island logistics objects".
Modern integrated management systems allow fully automated management in industrial enterprises, including the integration of new product design and management in its process, the management of flexible production systems and robotic complexes, material flow in supply, production and marketing, communications with suppliers and consumers in higher-order logistics systems, etc. The integrated properties of such systems are manifested primarily in the mandatory relationship with all types of logistics and primarily with information logistics, which we consider below.
The work of such integrated systems (MRP II, ERP, etc.) is possible only within the information environment supported by powerful and powerful computers.
The basis for the use of industrial logistics in integrated enterprise management is to create the conditions for an optimal, efficient and efficient production process in the space and time of the production system.
The current trend of the market towards the individualization of the output products highlights the issues of organization and management of small-scale and individual types of production. Therefore, when describing the main methods of production planning, the emphasis is on satisfying the modern needs of science and the practice of organizing production, t.s. consideration of basic methods of planning of mostly inexact small-scale and single productions. This feature must be taken into account by production logistics.
For the successful implementation of the concept of submarines it is necessary to comply with a number of conditions:
- ensure a high degree of integration of functions within the enterprise, as well as with suppliers and consumers;
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- to provide flexibility and adaptability of production to market conditions;
- reduce the duration of the production cycle;
- to reserve production capacities and not to maximize their loading;
- reduce all types of stocks;
- to universalize the equipment;
- eliminate marriage;
- to achieve the implementation of technologies for manufacturing products to order, etc.
Therefore, the concepts of MPR, ERP and other modern technologies of the product life cycle are the most relevant for production management.
For a submarine of great importance is the type of production. The complexity and efficiency of logistics management of flows depend on it.
The type of production is a complex characteristic of the technical, organizational and economic characteristics of production, due to the degree of specialization, complexity and stability of the manufactured product range, size and repeatability of output.
The main indicator characterizing the type of production is the coefficient of fixing of the operations (K zO ), which is defined as the ratio of the number of all the various technological operations (Topi) performed or to be performed within a month, to the number of jobs Trmj:
where i = 1, ..., n, and j = 1, ..., m.
In domestic theory and practice, there are three types of production: single, serial and mass.
For foreign theory and practice of industrial management is characterized by the allocation of the following production strategies corresponding to the listed types of production: strategies focused on the process; strategies for managing recurring processes, modular production; product-oriented strategies. At the same time, division according to the corresponding classification of types of productions is excluded.
So, individual production is characterized by: a small volume of output of identical products, the repeated manufacture of which, as a rule, is not provided; a large range of products; unstable technological specialization of sites; universal equipment; diverse and unorganized connections between workplaces; universal highly qualified personnel. K ZO is taken above 40.
Serial production is characterized by the production of several homogeneous product types by periodically repeating batches; specialization areas - subject, subject-group; standard equipment, simple, permanent and unidirectional connections between workplaces; workers of specific professions, medium qualification. Depending on K , small-series (K zo = 21-40) are distinguished, medium-range ( K > = 11-20) and large-scale (K zO = 1 - 10) production.
Mass production is characterized by:
- a large volume of output of products continuously produced for a long time, during which one work operation is performed in most workplaces ( К Z0 = 1);
- the sub-specialization of the sites; specialized equipment;
- the specialization of sites in a subject-closed form with typical technological processes;
- straight-line connections between workplaces; stream production;
- low-skilled workers.
In modern market conditions, the use of mass production is extremely limited, despite its high efficiency, since it assumes the production of homogeneous products for a long time when the seller's market and unlimited demand function. Therefore, today it accounts for approximately 20% of the output of machinery.
Market conditions set the task of satisfying a diverse and volatile demand in all industries, which requires increased efficiency, including through the use of modern methods of organization, planning and management, small-scale and single-productions. The identification of efficiency reserves is also aimed at organizing close relationships with suppliers and the consumer through the formation of ramified logistics chains, unification and typing of assembly units and details, and the application of the modular principle in the variety of the range of products; use of high-performance robotic and automated multi-functional production complexes, etc.
The share of all manufacturing enterprises using single and small-scale production, i.e. a process strategy focused on process management, production strategy on order is about 75-85%.
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