Major Types of Transport Corridors
The principle idea of any transport corridor (hereinafter referred to as "TC") is the concentration of transport, cargo and passenger flows on highways having the maximum throughput and high level of arrangement. This ensures the acceleration of freight and passenger transportation, as well as their cheaper due to the appearance of economies of scale. An additional effect occurs when several communicating modes of transport pass through the corridor of the transport corridor.
The principle of creating a transport corridor itself is known for a long time. In our country, the GOELRO1 plan also envisaged the creation of so-called poly-lines as the main means of inter-regional commodity exchange. However, modern systems of transport corridors have been actively developed on all continents since the 1970s. as an instrument for ensuring trade and development in the era of globalization of the economy.
Depending on the purpose of creating the TC, the level of interaction of stakeholders in its creation and the nature of regulation of transport, trade and economic activities, the transport corridor can be a transit corridor, a trade corridor or a development corridor.
The main goal of creating a transit corridor is to provide conditions for an unhindered and cost-effective movement of vehicles in a certain direction. At the same time, mainly transport and technological tasks related to the construction and modernization of communication routes, terminals, information systems, etc. are being addressed.
There is a classification of transit corridors, according to which they are divided into three types: landbridge - the land connection of the port where the cargo is delivered by sea, with the port on the opposite coast of the continent, from where the sea transport continues; minibridge - the land connection of the port where the cargo is delivered by sea, with the destination on the opposite coast of the continent; microbridge - the land connection of the port where the cargo is delivered by sea, with a destination in the interior of the continent.
Creating a trade corridor, in addition, provides for the introduction of favorable customs, tax, administrative regimes and the provision of a set of additional logistics services for the development of trade between regions or countries that connects this TC.
Developing corridors are called upon to play a systemic role in the economic and social development of the territories they pass through. Their creation is linked with projects for the development of economic and social sectors of the respective regions.Historically, natural transport communications - navigable rivers or seashores with numerous convenient harbors - played the role of "natural" developing corridors along which settlements and industrial facilities were located. An example of a river corridor is the Nile Valley, which has become a natural transport corridor that provided the development of Egyptian civilization.
The artificial transport corridor, which made a decisive contribution to the economic development of the adjacent territories, is the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The most important role in transport logistics and supply chains is played by transport corridors.
According to the definition of the World Bank, a transport trade corridor is a set of transport and logistics infrastructure and services that is coordinated by a national or international regional body to facilitate trade and transport flows between economic activity centers and international trade portals.1
There are other definitions of the concept of "transport corridor", which is explained by the variety of types of transport corridors and the difference in approaches to the creation of TCs and their development.
Transport corridors can be international or national.
International transport corridors (MTCs) connect two or more neighboring states and can pass through several transit states, in particular, to ensure maritime trade for landlocked countries.>
The creation and development of the ITC is the subject of international agreements concluded in various regions of the world. Such agreements involve the involvement of significant resources in the establishment of the TC, as well as the harmonization of the legislation and administrative procedures applied in the transport of TC.The most intensive development of transport corridors was in Europe, where the system of transport corridors of the European Union (TEN-T network, Transeuropean Network-Transport) and the Pan-European TC system, which mainly covers the Central and Eastern Europe region (see sub- paragraph 5.3.1).
The network of transport corridors is formed in the Asian continent, one of the main tasks being the creation of a TC to access European transport communications. The most famous Euro-Asian ITC is the TRACECA1 project.
In North America, transport corridors are created and developed under the NAFTA agreement to ensure trade between Canada, the United States and Mexico.
In addition to the MTK's continental systems, there are also a large number of regional projects and initiatives that are supported and implemented by individual countries or groups of countries.
National transport corridors are created within one state. Usually, national corridors connect large cities or urban agglomerations (for example, the Boston-Washington corridor to the USA or the Tokaido corridor in Japan). There are also national long-distance TCs that connect seaports with the adjacent logistics centers or "dry ports". Many national transport corridors are constituent parts or branches of the ITC.
Using the concept of transport corridors in the creation and development of transport systems allows:
- to ensure the alignment of priorities and projects for the development of transport and economic infrastructure, modes of transport, territories;
- reduce the costs associated directly or indirectly with transportation, by concentrating transport and freight flows, reducing the necessary land allocation, etc .;
- to develop intermodal transport, ensuring the interaction of modes of transport at the key points of transport corridors;
- to localize environmental effects by placing in a common communication band of different modes of transport;
provide a clear system of priorities for the selection of infrastructure projects.
Elements of transport corridors
TCs include transport communications that can be routed along different routes, but have common points, which provides a convenient choice of mode of transport, its change during transportation or transshipment between different services of the same mode of transport.
The key points of transport corridors are portals and hubs, in which the main traffic flows are concentrated.
Some TCs have a single route and are served by one mode of transport. However, most corridors include various modes of transport and alternative routes, as well as regional branches. Therefore, the transport corridor is not the - usually talk about the band of a corridor, in which there are transport communications, portals and hubs.
In most cases, TCs are created on the basis of rail and road transport communications, which interact through intermodal terminals. In some cases, the TC includes inland waterways or lines of coastal navigation. Ocean and air routes are not part of the TC, but seaports and airports are the most important elements of the portals of the main transport corridors.
Transport corridors are rarely created from scratch & quot ;. Most TCs are formed on the basis of existing communications, which are modernized on the basis of uniform standards (permissible loads, dimensions, throughput, etc.), which ensures unobstructed through traffic of vehicles. Parameters and capacity of terminals at the key points of the TC are chosen in such a way as to ensure unhindered trans-shipment and intermediate storage of cargo units, the possibility of performing logistics operations with the goods being transported, servicing of vehicles, etc.
The selection of projects for the development of communications and terminals in the transport corridor band, the attraction of resources for their implementation, the harmonization of regulatory regimes related to the TC and the solution of other TC development tasks require continuous monitoring of corridors functioning, analysis and forecasting of transport and cargo flows, parties. Therefore, transport corridors can be independent objects of management. The nature of the bodies and mechanisms of management created for this purpose depends on the type of transport corridor and the purposes of its creation.
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