360-degree Certification, Competency Assessment Method - Staff Assessment

360-degree attestation

Another experimental method for evaluating staff is the "360-degree" attestation (sociometric assessment method, sociometry, circular evaluation, etc.). Experts in the field of personnel evaluation consider this method to be the most progressive, but at the same time the most organizationally complex. 360-degree attestation appeared in the 1980s. as an addition to the method of managing by objectives and offering the company an alternative method of obtaining the necessary information about its employees and assessing their performance. Among the companies that first introduced the 360-degree and apply it regularly, include IBM, "Chrysler", "DuPont", "Disney", "Ford Motor Company", "General Motors", "Hewlett Packard", "Jonson & Jonson". , Xerox and others

The method is used for individual personnel tasks (for example, when the candidate is included in the personnel reserve or in the framework of team building trainings) and as an addition to the main evaluation system (used to assess managers). Its main feature is a fundamental difference from the traditional rating system for the "leader-subordinate" model, when one person acts as an expert. At 360-degree Certification by experts is a group of people working daily with an appraised employee and possessing a large amount of information necessary for the manager to make decisions - colleagues, managers, subordinates, clients, partners, consultants. Thus, the 360-degree attestation involves a broader view of the effectiveness of the work of employees and allows you to increase the objectivity of the evaluation by collecting information from different sources.

However, using the 360-degree attestation can lead to a number of problems (the complexity of data processing, the involvement of a large number of people in the completion of evaluation forms, etc.), which implies that this assessment should be applied in specific situations (for example, a significant change in career or work; reorganization in the team or the company as a whole (when new goals or performance criteria are set), obtaining objective information about the employee's problem, training the personnel reserve.)

And although more organizations prefer to use the "360-degree" attestation instead of traditional evaluation methods, many studies indicate scientific skepticism about the reliability of this method. For example, in the works of E. van Hoof and H. van Fleier, correlations of self-assessments of attestees, evaluations of managers and colleagues of about 200 workers of a large Dutch organization with scores received by the same workers in individual business exercises, a test of abilities and a personal questionnaire were investigated. The spread between the estimates was from 28 to 38%. Thus, the reliability of the 360-degree attestation by these scientists was not supported.

Competency Assessment Method

Competency assessment method, proposed in the 1970s. D. K. McClelland and received great popularity in the 1990's. in American (and later European and much later - United States) companies, arose in the search for a universal methodology for assessing staff. In 1982, the American scientist R. Boyatsis published the work "Competent Manager: An Effective Assessment Model," which created the basis for research and implementation of competencies that have become extremely demanded by modern HR practices. Today, based on the competence model, the procedures for evaluating, selecting, developing and training personnel, working with the personnel reserve, and certain aspects of the formation of the incentive system are built. A study conducted by CIPD in 2007 showed that more than 60% of respondents from companies from highly developed Western countries have competency models, and 48% plan to implement competency assessment methods in the near future.

M. Hjozlid, B. Becker and R. Beatty believe that the key aspect of competencies is not just the level of the employee in a certain competence (for example, the ability to work in a team), the presence of which is considered important for all employees. In this case, it is important that the requirements for the competencies of the workforce are clearly differentiated according to the drivers of strategic effectiveness (so if different organizational structures require different competency profiles, then the labor management and measurement systems should reflect these differences).

It should be noted that competence and competence - Different terms, although in United States practice there is a confusion of these concepts. Competence which, in turn, may include such an evaluation criterion as "competence". The most precise definition of competence was given by McClelland, who defined competence as "the basic quality of an individual having a causal relationship to the effective or best on the basis of performance criteria in work or other situations."

The key competencies of personnel in various positions can be analytical, organizational, adaptive abilities, the ability to learn, focus on achieving the goal, decision-making ability, client-oriented, teamwork, etc. In the 1990s. in the composition of types of competences began to add and elements such as emotional intelligence (EQ) and corporate loyalty. The most complete list of competences consists of the following elements: theoretical and professional knowledge; skills of performance of work and universal skills (communicative, managerial, etc.); ability to develop new types of activities; Value orientations and characteristics of motivation; personality traits and psycho-physiological features.

Today corporate psychology allocates a five-step gradation of competences (standards): negative level (incompetence), level of understanding of importance (emerging competence), basic (competence), strong level (high competence), leadership level (broadcast competence (Table 4.4 ).

Table 4.4

Competency Definition Quality of Work


Level Definition


Employee commits systematic errors in the work, without trying to fix the situation

Level of understanding of importance

Employee makes mistakes, but tries to improve the situation


The employee does the work in the required volumes and the established quality limits


Employee anticipates possible errors and tries to prevent deterioration of work quality


Employee in addition to anticipating his own mistakes in work stimulates the development of the desire for quality work for his subordinates and colleagues

The set of elements included in the description of the competency model depends on the intended practical application of the particular model. The trend of recent years has been a reduction in the number of competencies in models (from 30 to 8-12), since experience shows that the more competencies the model contains, the more difficult it is to apply it: in an unnecessarily detailed model, it is difficult to determine the boundaries between competencies, between them can be elusively small.

In addition, the experience of many successful companies shows that it is easier to apply the competence model common to the whole company, with clear instructions to model users, rather than trying to compile models for each management level and functional direction that would cover the requirements necessary for solving all tasks and performing all roles. For each competence, the methods or methodologies for its evaluation with different levels of objectivity should be determined, rules for the rapid definition of reference requirements for the expression of competences depending on the situation and the purpose of the evaluation are developed, standard recommendations and rules for their determination depending on the difference between the reference requirement and the candidate's evaluation .

While developing Competencies and the evaluation of these candidates for new candidates and employees already working in the company for more than 30 years of application proved to be quite effective in practice, it did not become a universal method for evaluating personnel both in foreign and United States companies. The practice of using competences has shown that in each company there is a certain category of employees with well-developed competencies, but not achieving the tasks set. The main reason for their failures are special combinations of destructive individual qualities, which some scientists suggest to call destructors (the so-called negative competence - behavior that prevents success in work). A. Vyazigin uses for definition of destructors the concept of "professionally unacceptable (undesirable) qualities" (PIC) and suggests to divide them into first and second order destructors (Table 4.5).

Table 4.5

Examples of first and second order destructors

First-order destructors

Authoritarian management style

Conflict in behavior

Internal Contradiction


Second-order destructors

Rigidity, stubbornness, aggressiveness

Spitfire, uncontrollability, emotional instability

Fussiness, suggestibility, uncertainty, low self-control

Stubbornness, passivity, cowardice, indifference

Using the competency model can significantly improve the effectiveness of HR management in the company, but does not guarantee the effectiveness of the activity, since the model does not take into account what the employee does and what results he achieves, as well as the personal and organizational factors that affect performance. Another difficulty in applying the competency assessment method is the extensive analytical and research work, which usually requires additional resources in the form of consultants from specialized companies. Independent realization of such projects, as experience shows, is not always successful.

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