Leadership is "the behavior of an individual when he/she is directing the actions of an organization towards a shared goal". A leader is seen as a person who sets the paths in an effort to influence visitors to abide by those paths. Leadership is an action rather than simply a position. It could be shown via different people in a variety of situations. One is not born to be always a leader but cultured through the upbringing and environment.
A leader's personal characteristics are also essential for the developments and motivations of the organizations. True leaders like the teachers who illustrated that leadership can be an action (teaching and leading the students) and not a posture.
Touching the lives and affecting the results of several different expectations, a teacher is the epitome of a leader. A leader has his / her own design of motivating folks in the organizations. A leader must find a very good skills in order to provide directions, motivations and purposes. Effective leaders are flexible.
Organizational Leadership Model
The effective leadership influence is not similar for everybody. It depends on their ranks in the organization and abilities which can be required in leaders. The three basic leadership roles identified: initiation, speech, and management.
Initiation identifies planned decision making on policy formulation or structural change. These vital decisions will be the determinants of the organization's culture and mission.
Strategic decisions and methods suitable for implementation within the establishment. It includes adjusting or adding to the present structure towards new policy demands.
Management is putting into practice the policies and measures that exist to maintain the procedures of the business efficiently.
These three types of Leadership are naturally executed at diverse ranks in the company with different capabilities and skills. The very best level management would initiate new policies that involve a change in their structure or understanding the business's mission. An understanding of the complete organization, culture, mission, vision and exactly how it correlates with the external parties is mandatory for these top level individuals. They represent the organization and what the business enterprise stands for.
Understanding the policy decisions and practicing those to the existing organization via utterance or speech is usually made by the intermediate-level managers. They need to uphold a two-way point of reference by firmly taking orders from the above management and adapting them for the lower groups of people in the organization.
Type of Leadership
Initiation: Change, creation and elimination of structure
piecing out of structure
Integration of primary
Management: use of
of system of rules
Concern with equity in
use of rewards and
EXHIBIT 16. 1 Three Leadership Patterns, Their Location in the Organization, and Their Skill Requirements
The company's policies and procedures will be administered by the Lower-level supervisors. These personnel must own both the technical knowledge and a specific perception of the organization's rules in order to be successful. They have to continually deal with issues such as equity, rewards and punishments in leading others. Therefore, leadership plays an essential role within an organization because the it has direct effect on the potency of the organizations. Leadership is when a person manipulates others to execute a task at their own will which they wouldn't normally normally do. Leadership is a essential process to a business and it could be deliberated on three different stages; i. e. the individual, group and organization.
Analysis at the average person stage: the leadership studies have paid attention on the successful leader' personalities. Behaviors of both formal and informal leaders are focused at the group level. The potency of an organization is set by the relations between your leader, follower and circumstances. The studies have caused an emergence of different theories of leadership, namely situational and contingency.
In Search for Leadership
The requirements in selecting and training efficient leaders were emphasized through the World War I and the quarter century between World War l and World War II; numerous studies were designed to examine the non-public characteristics of good leaders. These studies are usually referred as characteristic studies since the primary goal was to classify the traits and personal characteristics of successful leaders.
The diverse methods used to study these leadership traits is most likely the reason in the irregularities of the results. The manner of studies was not regular in identifying the leaders. Most the studies is at comparing efficient with inefficient leaders or leaders with non-leaders. Some were recognized by external observers, others selected by the group using recommendation or voting, nominated by observers such as teachers although some were chosen because they are already in leadership positions. The studies conducted were in conflict regarding the way they deliberated on the traits. Some traits were measured by mental tests; others relied on viewers to identify the traits they have seen while some depended on the individuals to report their own personality traits.
The trait studies were quite unsatisfactory as a whole especially given that they had hoped to build up an accurate measure of leadership effectiveness. The spotlight on the leadership research moved due to flimsy results, to contingency studies which investigated more than just traits of the leader. Numerous traits formed an important divergence in leadership effectiveness plus they interrelated with other conditional variables to stimulate the potency of the leader.
Physical attributes including height, weight, health and appearance are also examined in the studies. It had been concluded that there's a relationship between the above features and leadership. Apparently leaders hold the tendency to be taller, heavier, better fitness, greater physique, higher energy output and more attractive to look at. However, these types of results weren't always reliable and consistent. The results neither are too weak generally and not regular to work in selecting leaders nor are they ideal for training functions since very little can be made to alter almost all of these physical traits.
It was generally agreed that leaders tend to be more intellectual than non-leaders and the partnership was shown in the many studies. The relationship could probably begin from the reality that leadership functions depend mostly on success in problem solving. Leadership roles such as initiation, speech and management necessitate great mental ability. Generally, it is safe to assume that leaders seems to be more intelligent than non-leaders but the relationships are small. A great many other variables apart from intellect inspire leadership effectiveness.
It was also suggested that leaders shouldn't be too intelligent than the group because associates who are notably brilliant than others are rarely chosen as leaders because the other members have a tendency to snub them. People with high IQ's are inclined to have different sets of vocabulary, networks and aspirations that would create communication and inter-relations problems.
Leaders do very well generally at school/college/university and score better grades. It's important for effective leadership to learn how to do things. Thus general and practical knowledge are essential for leaders to make smarter decisions.
Only a partial of the characteristic traits seem to be related to leadership & most are not especially convincing. It was suggested that the average leader is more used to social displays, greater initiative, persistent, knows how to get things done, self-confident, will be more cooperative and adaptable, and possesses excellent communication skills. Leaders were found to become more emotionally mature than non-leaders in the personality integration or emotional adjustment. It can be figured personal characteristics are related to leadership.
Effective leadership will not depend on an assortment of personality traits only because situational variables are also important given that they always decide whether a character was associated with effective leadership either positively or negatively. Therefore, it can deduced that effective leadership depends on the leader's characteristics, his subordinates and the type of the duty at hand.
Many leadership styles were based on studies of leaders' behaviors. The finest researches on the styles of leadership are made together at the same time; i. e. The Ohio State University and the University of Michigan. Researchers acknowledged two leader behaviors that were similar even though the investigations were conducted separately. Because of this, a two dimensional aspects of leadership have gone to used to create the Managerial Grid.
Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez-faire Leadership
Due to the diverse political systems in america and Germany before World War II inspired studies of leadership which evaluated three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez faire. Within the democratic leadership style, decisions were created by vote of majority; equal participation encouraged; criticism and punishment minimal. Inside the autocratic leader, the first choice made all the decisions and others are required to follow the set procedures strictly. Within the laissez-faire leader, there is minimal actual leadership while others were permitted to work and play as usual without proper directives.
Initiating Structure and Consideration
The two leadership factors were initiating structure and consideration such as leadership behaviors in organizing and defining the tasks to be performed and goal achievements. A leader who assigns people to do specific jobs, expected personnel to follow set routines and meet deadlines. The consideration factor is showing friendship, mutual trust, warmth and concern for subordinates.
Production-Centered and Employee-Centered Leader Behaviors
Production - centered behaviors were akin to initiating structure in which leaders would establish targets, gave directives, checked on functions and planned the group Employee's work. Centered behaviors were similar to the consideration's dimension in which the leader would develop a caring personal relationship with the subordinates and encouraged a two-way communication with them. The partnership between production-centered and employee centered behaviors are found to be independent scopes of leadership. A leader with strong production orientation does not mean that he is disinterested in the employees.
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton had created a framework which combines a problem for task accomplishment and a problem for people called the Managerial Grid. They both assumed that concern for production and concern for folks would produce the most effective leadership style. You will find leaders primarily more concerned with accomplishing the production and task not concerned about people. This person wants the job done and schedule followed no matter what. Addititionally there is individual who is not concerned if the group produces not concerned more about the non-public needs and interests of the team members. Ideally, leaders should be concerned about meeting schedules to be able to get the task done and simultaneously are concerned about the team members' interest and feelings too.
The Managerial Grid is popular among managers. It really is extensively employed by organisations as part of their training program to examine leadership style. However, the potency of the Managerial Grid is not constantly supported. The factors which are considered in determining leadership styles interact in complicated ways which resulted in various leadership styles.
(1) guidance and direction provided by the leaders (task behavior)
(2)emotional support distributed by the first choice (relationship behavior)
(3) the maturity level exhibited in performing the task
Give instructions and supervise performance closely. Fitted to followers who are unwilling but of low maturity.
Decide and offer chance for explanation. Befitting followers who are not able but willing.
Sharing ideas to make decisions. Suited for followers who are able but not willing.
Responsibility handed over for decisions and performance. Appropriate for groups who are able and willing.
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Fiedler studied the interaction of leadership style and situation. He recognized and developed ways to measure leadership orientation of the first choice and situational factors which influence leadership.
Two types of leaders were identified, i. e. relationship-oriented or task-oriented. Leaders who are relationship-oriented tend to take a look at others as coworkers and look upon interpersonal relations as a requirement towards accomplishing the duty. However, for task-oriented leaders, they react strongly against people whom they cannot be friends with in performing a task.
(1) relationships between leader and member can be good or bad;
(2) the task is relatively well planned or not; and
(3) the leader's authority is relatively strong or weak.
The task structure becomes the next most significant situational variable as evaluated by judges who examined four areas of the task structure.
Clarity: whether requirements of the tasks are explained clearly,
Multiplicity: that your problems encounter can be solved.
Verifiability: that your correctness of the decisions can be ascertained.
Specificity: which there are usually more solutions involved with performing the duty.
Relationship-oriented leaders perform excellently well in situations where concern for the team members is apparently necessary to be able to motivate them to execute well. People naturally prefer leaders who value them and their welfare. However, task-oriented leaders are plainly more effective in impossible situations.
Directive leadership: subordinates are told what things to be expected. Specific guide, standards and work schedules are given to ensure that task are performed as expected.
Supportive leadership: subordinates are treated equally and show concern for their needs and well-being; develop nice interpersonal relationships among the list of group members.
Achievement-oriented leadership: challenging goals are set and subordinates are expected to execute at their highest level, improvement in performance always.
Participative leadership: subordinates are consulted on suggestions and ideas in making decisions.
(1). Followers with internal locus of control assume that they are rewarded because of their own effort. Meanwhile, followers with external locus of control assume that external forces have a control on their rewards.
(2). Authoritarianism: a person's willingness to accept the influence of others.
(3). Abilities: The followers' ability and experience influence a leader if they have the ability to work with an achievement oriented leader or a supportive leader who are patient enough to provide encouragement and instruction.
the nature of the duty to be performed,
the existing organisation's authority system
the organisational norms and dynamics
The above factors may influence the effectiveness of different leadership styles in a many ways.
Normative Decision-Making Model of Leadership
Based on the contingency theory of leadership, this leadership model will not assume any leadership style as appropriate for all situations. Leaders must develop a range of leadership styles and take on the most likely style with respect to the situation. Leaders are required to know where circumstances they have to seek advice from others and vice versa.
Even although leader might be the chairman of the group, he is just one of the group members and does not try to influence the group to adopt a specific solution.
Criteria for choosing the leadership style.
Two requirements used for assessing the efficiency of an leadership style are quality and acceptance. The quality of the decisions made refers to the accurateness of the actions taken and the extent which some objectives are achieved. The quality of decisions is determined by accurate and relevant information Conferring with other group members often provides additional information.
Diagnostic decision rules.
In order to save time and minimize costs, some managers choose the lead autocratically. If desire to was to help expand the subordinates' personal development, the participative style is selected. In a few strategies, the manager decides alone. Sometimes, the manager decides on his own after earlier consultations along with his subordinates.
Comparing the leadership models.
All situational leadership models emphasize on the result of external factors on a specific leadership style. Different leadership styles suggest styles that are dependant on various situational factors. The models give attention to different methods, that are situational factors and conditions for choosing the right style: task-oriented versus relationship-oriented.
The normative decision-making model ascertains three leadership styles, namely autocratic, consultative, and participative. In each model, situational factors which influence the effectiveness of leadership are somewhat different. A substantial reason being that normative decision- making model equates leadership with making decisions and talks about only this leadership function. The models also use different conditions for evaluating leadership effectiveness.
DETERMINANTS OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS
Although identifying what makes an effective leader seems such as a simple task, however, individuals who are in leadership positions tend to be confronted with a dilemma on deciding which leadership pattern to apply.
Choosing a Leadership Style
Choosing the most appropriate leadership style to look at depends largely on the context of the organisation. An effective leader must manage to assessing the situational forces in the organisation and respond accordingly to the needs. The forces include the organisation culture, business goals as well as the organisation's strategic plans. Effective leaders must understand themselves, the group, company and social environment.
Strategies for Improving Leadership
One of the primary variable to improve leadership relates largely to the organisation's reward system. Leaders should not overlook his capacity to reward his followers accordingly since followers will respond otherwise. For example, the managers of high- performing groups generally are compensated according to their achievements. Considerate leaders have the ability to create satisfaction amongst their performing subordinates while at the same time, changes in the behavior of the leaders could be caused by the performance of the subordinates.
Constraints on leader behavior.
Leaders have limited opportunities to influence others. Leadership effectiveness is inhibited by a variety of factors. For example, the managerial decisions are planned ahead due to law, structure, technological specifications and the lack of alternatives.
Many other organisational factors can impose limitations on the leader's capability to either talk to or to reinforce the behavior of the subordinates. For instance, organisational policies, nature of task, skills and capabilities of available resources and other external factors may impede the capacities of organisational leaders.
In conditions of external factors, leaders are constrained by factors that they have no control on such as state and federal laws. Other external factors include the world economy and global issues. Irrespective of their leadership style, leaders with unskilled resources will face great challenges in leading. The option of skilled followers is subjected to the external labor market.
The organization may limit a leader's effectiveness by hampering the amount of communication between leaders and followers. The prevailing company policies may also pose restrictions on the power of leaders to reward or punish followers.
Leaders may find it hard to penetrate or influence group members who are highly unified. This will generate difficulty for leaders to demonstrate his true functions in performing tasks for the organisation.
Individual skills and abilities.
The leader's own skills and talents may act as constraints since leaders can only just possess a great deal expertise, energy, and power. Some situations may simply require greater skills and abilities than the first choice may possibly hope to possess.
Substitutes for leadership. Although some situations constrain leaders other situations make leadership unnecessary. These variables are known as substitute variables because they substitute for leadership either by causing the leader's behavior unnecessary or by neutralizing the leader's ability to influence subordinates.
Leadership can be an extremely important function. It comes with an enormous influence on the value of groups and organizations. The complexity of the problem, however, may prevent us from knowing beforehand which is the very best leadership behaviors.
1. Leadership identifies increasing influence which occur when an individual manipulates others to do tasks voluntarily which they would not do otherwise. The basic leadership roles include initiation of policy and structure, speech, and management. A need for leadership within organizations stems from the incompleteness of the business design and the dynamic nature of the internal and external environments.
2. The studies of leadership were mainly studies on traits that tried to identify the characteristics of effective leaders. The studies focused mainly on physical traits, intellect and characteristic. The results were usually weak and inconsistent although some personal characteristics were always related to leadership. Most studies concluded that the characteristics of the subordinate and the type of the duty were as important as the characteristics of the leader in identifying success.
3. Another approach to studying leadership set on leader behaviors; i. e. how leaders actually behave. Among the studies compared three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire. Although democratic leadership produced the greatest satisfaction, autocratic leadership had the highest levels of productivity.
4. Research conducted simultaneously at two universities determined two similar leadership behaviors. IN THE Ohio State University the researchers labeled these two leader behaviors initiating structure and consideration. At the University of Michigan the same two factors were labeled production-centered and employee-centered leader behaviors. These two leader behaviors may actually identify leadership functions necessary to the potency of a group. The two Factors have been used to form a matrix called the Managerial Grid which places a problem for production using one side of the grid and concern for folks on the other. The study evidence will not support this conclusion consistently.
5. The unsuccessful research to recognize leadership traits or universally superior leader behaviors caused an emergence of development of four situational theories of leadership. The theories claim that the most effective leadership style depends after situational variables particularly the characteristics of the group and the nature of the duty.
6. A situational leadership model that matched different combinations of task behavior and relationship behavior with the maturity of the followers. As the followers increase, the appropriate leadership style is telling, selling, participating, and finally for highly mature followers, delegating.
7. The most likely leadership style was determined by assessing three situational variables: if the relationships between your leader and the members were good or poor, the task was structured or unstructured, and the power position of the first choice was strong or weak. When these three situational variables created an extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situation, the very best leadership style was a task-oriented leader. However, where there were intermediate degrees of favorableness, a leader with a high concern for interpersonal relationships was more effective in these circumstances.
8. The road goal model theory comes from expectancy theory. It suggests that effective leaders must clarify the prospective paths and increase its attractiveness for followers. Four distinct leadership styles are proposed in the model: directive, supportive achievement-oriented and participative leadership styles.
The style best suited depends after two types of situational factors: the characteristics of the follower and characteristics of the surroundings. Three of the most crucial follower characteristics include the locus of control, authoritarianism, and personal abilities. The three environmental factors are the nature of the duty, the formal authority system within the business, and the group norms and dynamics.
9. The three leadership styles include autocratic decision making, consultative decision making, and group decision making. Your choice titles deciding which style is best suited include such questions as whether the leader has satisfactory information to consider alone, whether the subordinates encourage the goals of the business, whether subordinates encourage the decision if they do not take part in making it, and whether the decision will create a controversial solution.
10. The influence of the group after the leader shouldn't be overlooked. The relationship between the leader and the group implies a reciprocal influence. Groups have the capability to influence the behavior of the leaders by responding selectively to specific leader behaviors. The influence of your leader can also be constrained by several external factors, such as organizational policies, group norms, and individual skills and abilities. Other variables have been found to neutralize or substitute for the influence of any leader, including the skills and skills of followers and the nature of the duty itself.
POSITIONING ON LEADERSHIP CRISIS
There are many leadership theories. Arthur G. Jago (1982) had proposed a framework that organizes leadership theories predicated on each theory's focus and approach. Focus identifies whether the leadership is seen as a couple of traits or actions. There's a universal formula of traits or behavior for a powerful leader. However, effective leadership also is determined by specific situations.
The sorts of behaviors that leaders can in fact perform in a group. Both leader behaviors which may have been consistently observed including task-related activities, called initiating structure or production-centered activities, and interpersonal relations activities, sometimes called consideration or employee-centered activities. The incremental influence that one individual exerts after another and that triggers the second person to change his or her behavior voluntarily. Three leadership roles include origination of the structure by top-level managers, interpolation or adapting the structure by middle-level managers and administration or implementation of the policies and procedures by lower-level supervisors.
I concur using a. Ange on the presence of leadership crisis but I also foresee the resolutions taken and are still being taken to resolve the condition. Many organizations are spending money in sending their employees to be groomed and trained for future growth of the business whereby they are exposed to different methods of management as well as how to be great leaders. Leaders are born to leaders but in some circumstances, situations and environments also play a huge role in making a leader.
Leaders come and go and new ones are always on the threshold to dominate the empty space. The qualities of the leaders and their leadership styles vary nevertheless they are essential in the development and motivation processes of the organizations. There is a crisis in good leadership but it isn't at a critical point. Big organizations could have everything in place for future years growth of the business and could have in-line the replacements for those areas of the management. Even is small to medium sized organizations have planned their management line-ups for the future. The ongoing programs and trainings that are conducted by organizations to create capable leaders and groom them further showed that companies are aware of the could be crisis and had taken steps to overcome the problem.
Yes, there's a crisis however the severity of the crisis is not huge enough to cause panics throughout the organizations.
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