A Research On Organizational Behavior Management Essay

Organizational habit is a field concerned with study of the relationship between the business and the individuals in the workforce. In particular it entails studying how the organization influences the tendencies of its staff and how as a result those folks are able to impact the organization. It can be a wide subject that involves various disciplines such as anthropology, mindset, sociology and so on. In learning the organizational patterns it helps to note that in the traditional finished systems various factors that are essential in the modern working environment were still left unconsidered. However the available system has liked the environmental factors such as attitudes and individuals sentiments which remain vital in studying the human behavior.

In health care sector the behavior of individuals or groups is similar to any other business even though there may be a little variant that can be attributed to the initial issues that are made available from different environmental conditions. Consequently the management conditions that are experienced in other organizations are also replicated in medical sector. The organizational habit is important to the management in the present day heath good care environment. Issues from the organizations which range from the achievements and professionalism continue to be believed in the organizational habit. For instance, the heath good care providers have very skilled professionals who are likely to adhere to a code of reliable systems to ensure delivery of health services. Evidently the heath specialists such as medical doctors work autonomously and as such the management must find the right balance to improve the efficiency of the workforce while presenting the medical professionals their autonomy. In today's financial conditions medical workers are expected to deliver on quality health services amid stiff competition and much more coordination in providing such complex services. Furthermore, the labor difficulties can be found in modern health care organizations inserting more pressure on the few heath good care professionals available. Indeed, with escalating costs of providing heath health care services and minimizing reimbursements it's been become essential for the managers to be equipped with skills on the organizational tendencies for the better coordination and efficiency of the available workforce. Using the increased demand for outpatient services and ageing populace the provision of medical attention services requires better management of the workforce against the backdrop of the above problems. But this demands the managers to own skills on the organizational behavior.

Another scenario in which the management team in medical sector should be equipped with the right skills n dealing with issues concerning the employees is outlined. Understanding organizational action would prove important within an case where there is higher rate of absenteeism. However, instead of the managers evaluating the fundamental problem they conclude sacking the doctors. The professionals could be inhospitable with the personnel avoiding their presence leading to an unhealthy marriage which convert to absenteeism. That is another occasion in the present day working environment a director requires such skills in improving the production of the worker and reduces this rate of absenteeism.

2. Employees and organizational behaviour

Organizational behavior in organizations is employed to improve productivity, enhancing the staff job satisfaction, increasing staff retention, minimizing turnover and boosting dedication from the employees. But how come learning organizational patterns also important for employees? Most organizations nowadays are significantly using categories in undertaking a few of the tasks. Working in a group requires cohesion and understanding the attitude and developing social relationships with all of those other members. Within the group it then becomes important for each and every specific to be equipped with the organizational tendencies skills to ensure even relation with all of those other group users.

Organizational behaviour enhances empowerment, job satisfaction and moral action from employees. A worker is area of the organization and is every worker is important in the success of the goals of organizations in sectors such as professional medical. Being outfitted with organizational behavior skills ensures a wholesome romance with the management. That is because of the exposure already received on the obstacles the management team encounters in attaining performance and production in the business.

It also goes without saying that learning on organizational patterns contributes to self improvement on areas such as conception, personality and frame of mind. This becomes important in other areas as opposed to the work environment. Additionally it is worth mentioning that an employee could be ingested to be a member of the management team in future and it thus it becomes preferable to have the skills on controlling the workforce before hand. As a matter of fact this also helps as the individual can understand the issues facing the staff and the management owing to the vulnerability on both levels.

3. Perception

Perception can be explained as the process by which the individuals in a place of work are able to select, coordinate, interpret, get and respond to certain information. Indeed it could be argued that how a person perceives or thinks about a situation can determine the organizational tendencies. In the perceptual process the information is subject to distortion and in which particular case this contributes to an individual acting on incomplete or inappropriate information. Information is obtained via the senses of reading, feeling, sight, flavour and smelling.


In studying individual perception several theories have been put forward and they all concede that folks respond to a predicament in regard to how they perceive it. Perception as studied by Bandura (1977) is able to be affected by expectation. In a very health sector circumstance an employee is motivated to handle a responsibility with the expectations that after conclusion of the task you will see a valued final result. The individual notion is contained and the manager's expectation is customized on the organization goals.

Besides the expectancy theory there also is available the attribution theory which looks for to reaffirm that inferences are made to explain on the observations made. However, understanding where wrong features to an discovered behavior are made can occur. That is referred to as fundamental attribute error which contributes to wrong judgment (Jack, 2004). For example in a health care scenario a manager may cause a fundamental attribute problem by presuming a physician who involves work later is lazy where as there can be an underlying explanation.

Factors influencing perceptual process

Characteristic of the perceiver and setting

This entails impact which is attributed to the perceivers past encounters, motive, personality, worth and the frame of mind (Leary, 1964). It's quite common knowledge that individuals are selective perceivers on basis of interests, experience and even attitudes. The individuals develop heuristics in handling of information where in fact the complex process of notion is simplified based on past experiences. The amount of notion or judgment according to Das and Teng (1999) could be biased with the conception being predicated on use of limited information credited to a belief or an assumption already placed. As such this restrictions on your options available because of the collection of already predetermined effects. Furthermore, the biasness of the perceiver towards a situation may lead to the undermining the seriousness and the possibilities available. This also constricts on the final results available to because of the simplification of the issue. On the other hand, the overestimation of the ability of an perceiver may possibly also lead to lacking information control and flawed conception. Finally the degree on the probability of occurrence could also blind the perceiver to make the right solution or restricting the final results possible.

Characteristic of the setting and perceived

This pertain the various physical, social and organizational contexts (Lenten, 1969). The procedure of conception is affected by the identified by characteristics such as compare, intensity, figure ground separation, size, action and repetition (Denzel, 1991). Indeed, the recognized could be judged by the individuals from contrasting with other situations and items having similar characteristics. As such, the perception attained is likely to be evaluated from the outcome of the similarity.

Stages of the perceptual process


By selective screening a person obtains information via manipulated processing or testing the perceiver's awareness (Billy, 1991). However Jane (1992) argues that prior to the collection of information there is certainly perceptual grouping where individual stimuli are categorised into recognizable categories having similar habits. Grouping is performed on the basis of continuity, proximity, similarity or closure


This includes use of schemas which are cognitive frameworks that react to a stimulus in line with the experience obtained over time. Schemas could be self, person, script or person in self schemas (William, 1973). Under schema the truth between the qualities based on anticipations is studied. The individual schema deals with the individual's qualities and actions. On the other hand the script schema dictates how various occurrences are designed to follow one another. Finally addititionally there is the schema based on various roles that happen to be related to their requisite targets and appropriate behavior. The writing of schemas in health care organizations becomes important with the strategies chose after by the professionals being steady with the individual schemas. It could be seen that with the writing of the schemas the organizations behaviours can properly be identified.

Interpretation and retrieval

It is worth noting that the ways in which individuals interpret information vary. Through selective understanding individuals are in a position to interpret information that they consider being appealing, of their history, from previous experience or even predicated on their attitudes. On the other hand retrieval will involve obtaining information which is stored in the storage.

The Conception Process

Stereo typing and perception

Stereotype is one type of perceptual distortions other distortions being halo effects, selective conception and projection. Prototype is employed when organizing information overload in social identity. If inadequate in concealing the individual distinctions it becomes stereotyping. The human being storage area has schemas and which provide with expectations on different incidents, items, people and situations. Generally this process of information processes is what we call understanding. Perception is not really a distortion but an activity. Alternatively, the stereotyping is relying on generalized and simplified conceptions that could be unsafe on extension to a person. For instance in describing a bird u really on the prototype of any bird one is aware. It could be described it flies on the whole has wings and so forth. However such a prototype becomes a stereotype when it is prolonged to a poultry since it doesn't fly.

4. Groups

A group within an corporation comprising of two or ore people working collectively to satisfy the goals of a business by undertaking specific tasks. As a result categories are instrumental in the organization as they help in execution of important jobs. But are categories far better than individual decision making? Groups in an company bring synergy credited to cohesiveness. Under this arrangement the task preformed is more than the fulfillment that could have been achieved separately. As a result the role of synergy in a group is important in helping the organizations meet their long-term and short-term goals.

Groups are believed to be more beneficial than the individuals as the contribution is inspired by sharing of information. Besides problem solving being consultative communities are able to exploit the development tactics such as department of labour which increases more effectiveness. Where innovation is necessary in an firm group's contribution is preferred because of its better performance. However, it is worth noting that the group performance in an organization is also subject to communal loafing which is reduces on the efficiency. The reduced performance therefore of sociable loafing is related to the lack of recognition of the individual contribution (Miguel, 2003). Furthermore, imbalance in the contribution of the members may possibly also lead to some individuals having more workload and discouraging them in the group contribution. However, the situation of sociable loafing can be averted with the users being designated clear roles to increase on the individual potential and interest. Accountability which is widespread in an individual work relationship should be motivated insurance agencies a rewarding scheme where individual productivity is accepted.

The specific performance in the group could be affected through sociable facilitation. This is another setback of the group work over the individual work relationship in an organization. Public facilitation could be either negative or positive. It could be defined as the propensity of an individual action to being inspired by the rest of the work force. As a result in an organization performance individuals who are not amply trained with their duties may be hindered with their productivity. Conversely the task performance of the individuals amply trained with their tasks is positively afflicted.

Types of groups

The formal communities in an corporation may be momentary or long lasting. The temporary work group may be known as an organization which is established to solve a certain problem or perform a specific task on a short term basis. On the other hand permanent task group besides having permanent tenure are vertically integrated in the framework of the organization. It is worthwhile noting that electronic groups in an organization perform on the task assigned by using a networked system and don't have physical meeting. Virtual organizations carryout their responsibilities in a groupware unlike in face-to-face group. The teams within an organizational can have another deviation where they may be also be informal. Informal work groups are pivotal within an corporation by supplementing the tasks of the formal work teams. The groups are also cultural in nature plus they enrich on the individual people.

The development of teams goes through phases in ensuring their effective performance. Initially the first stage involves the approaching together of the users. The forming level is important for familiarization of the associates and in-depth knowledge of the task assigned to the group. In addition, at this time formulation of the guidelines in guiding the group and code of ethics is drafted. Another stage is the storming stage where the level of emotion and stress among the members is usually high (Helen, 2006). At this time members are occupied integrating with one another, understanding social styles and being accustomed to their new working agreement. Following the storming stage come the norming stage where in fact the group starts positioning along for amore coordinated performance (Jade, 2006). The main stage is the performing development which is when the real task is performed. The working romantic relationship is cemented at this stage with the teething problems having been attended to. The adjourning level marks the end of well operating group. Michael (2003) argues out a group which had been well included and was operating well can disband very easily having completed the given task.

Group's dynamics

As earlier seen in the forming level of the task group the formal code of carry out and the required behaviors are developed on the onset. However, during the tenure of the group there are emergent behaviors that happen to be shown by the members in addition to the required habits. The romantic relationships in the group could be grouped into three facets. The first facet includes the precise work mandated to be performed by the group. The social communication is also important. The final facet in the relationship requires the sentiments which form the attitudes and the feelings held on the list of associates. The negative aspects of the inter-group active can sap the synergy of the group leading to unhealthy romantic relationship. As a matter of fact participants of the group may find they are spending too much time in resolving interior conflicts rather than concentrating on the duty at hand.

Decision making in a group is manufactured through insufficient response, authority rule, minority rile, majority rule, consensus and unanimity (Michael, 2003). Unlike where there is the average person relationship between a worker and an organization, in an organization work romantic relationship there are myriad of benefits associated with these procedures of decision making. Your choice making in a group being consultative is able to utilize the experience of the members making the problem-solving easier. The decision attained democratically becomes satisfactory to all users and this reinforces the average person commitment from the average person members. The machine however has some down sides. For instance, unlike in times where an individual is likely to make a faster decision group-decision-making process is frustrating. The 'group think' is another downside of the group work within an organization where in fact the members in a group loose their evaluation capabilities resulting in poor decisions being made (Steven, 2004). Moreover, in a group work setting the decision making procedure for the group may be dominated with a clique making it ineffective.

In forestalling the setbacks associated with the formal groups the decision making process is improved upon through several techniques. Richard (2007) lists these ways to be brainstorming, Delphi method, computer mediated process and nominal group technique. In brainstorming criticism is not satisfactory and the people are allowed to quickly generate ideas, alternatives and allows free wheeling. On the other hand, nominal group approach entails developing a nominal question where everyone participates without criticism from all of those other users. The Delphi method is usually used where the members in an organization cannot meet physically. The procedure is complete and involves mailing questions electronically to the associates with the planner then acquiring the responses and developing a questionnaire (Edward, 1990). After receiving the various responses a listing of the reactions is made by the planner who then transmits it back again to the members alongside the questionnaire which has been developed. This technique arrives at a conclusion which must be agreed after by all the participants. Finally you have the computer aided method where brainstorming is performed through virtual means. The above arrangements help in bringing the efficiency in a group's decision making process while stimulating the participation from all the members.


As already observed preceding group think is one setback of working in a group. Where as working together could lead to cohesive decision making groupthink also brings about poor decision-making. Janis (1983) defines groupthink as the tendency of the customers of a group to loose emphasis of their judgment and mental efficiency in carrying out of the duty given anticipated to in-group stresses. That is one feature of group work that is not in an individual relationship with an organization. On the other hand, when members are working in a group there exists pressure for uniformity and unanimity. Therefore with the top responsibility being bestowed on the people there is certainly that trend of feeling invincible and morally right. Specifically the member participation may be hindered with the group working in a stereotypical way. The complacency and insulation from outside influence ultimately brings about poor decision making. Groupthink is also added by insufficient proper formulation of a plan to be accompanied by the group in gratifying its task. As a result decisions are created erratically credited to lack of a specific protocol. In essence, it could be argued that groupthink is brought along by cohesiveness, the isolation of the group, head intimidation and insufficient proper plan in decision making (Throat, 1994). Despite the fact that groupthink contributes to poor performance of a group in an corporation these disadvantages can be averted. One major way of keeping away from group think is by 'options memo strategy'. By options memo approach the work assigned to the group is plainly layed out (Raymond, 1999). On the other hand, isolation which may cause groupthink can be prevented by introducing new people in to the group to offer expert advice, recommendation and evaluation of the task done.

The cohesiveness of the group has been found to be one cause of groupthink. In forestalling its unwanted effects the competing ideas in decision making on the list of members may lead to the destruction of the cohesion. As such the rebuilding of the cohesion is needed after having a certain period of time. This may be attained by integrating several methods in decision making such as brainstorming and voting processes. As such involvement of the dissatisfied associates is improved through such brainstorming lessons. This engages the involvement of all users of the group in the decision making process. Morehead (1998) message or calls this decompression and it is necessary in handling the discord of ideas and reestablishing the bonds between the members.

In finish it is apparent that individual decision making becomes inadequate where important decision making is required and where contribution and assessment is necessary. Specific decision making is bound to be affected by selective perception with decisions being made based on self applied interest (Scribd, 2008). In addition, the limited knowledge by one individual becomes an enormous setback where in fact the decision takes a solution from an abundance of ideas. Even though the groupings are confronted by obstacles such as groupthink and other issues these problems can be addressed making the decision making in an organization to become more preferred as compared to individual decision making. The benefits that are offered by the group decision making far outweigh the down sides as the engagement of the people also helps in imparting them with the skills on organizational patterns and more productivity for the company.

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