A Study PREDICATED ON Senge Model

The importance of organizational learning in organizations can never be underestimated. In Malaysian creation business, the applications of organizational learning may be the crucial factors that keep the continuous improvement going.

Organizational learning is a popular practice among developing organizations. The business learns to adapt to culture and conditions changes. Organizational learning can be followed back to Cyert and March (1963) who presented the conditions of "Organizational Learning". Some have stated that Argyris and Sch¶n (1978) were the first one to propose models that help organizational learning. Using Gregory Bateson's ideas of first and second order learning, they separate the single-loop and double-loop learning.

Organizational learning can be described in a variety of ways and a business will not only in a position to learn but it also can unlearn in some way to improve their ongoing improvement. Relating to Senge's "The Fifth Principles: The Skill and Practice of The Learning Organization" book that was released in 1990, there are five disciplines in Organizational Learning. Those five disciplines are

System Thinking

Personal Mastery

Mental Models

Shared Vision

Team Learning

Each of the discipline can be utilized individually or in any combination to match an organization needs. These disciplines have been used extensively in public as well as private sector to produce learning organization.

This research will be focusing on the learning organization routines in Malaysian creation companies predicated on the Senge's five disciplines models. The manufacturing companies will be determined from three manufacturing market sectors which is motor vehicle, consumer electronics and ICT. The independent parameters in this research will be the Senge Five Disiplines Model and the centered variables in this research would be Learning Organizational.

Research Questions

In order to remain competitive, Malaysian manufacturing companies have been positively looking for ways to become learning company. The only path to stay in advance in this global business environment is the rate of learning of the organization is higher than the pace of change.

Mainly, this review tries to research the learning organization characteristics predicated on Peter Senge's Model in Malaysian Creation companies. Specifically this research attempt to answer these questions

Is there any evidence of learning organization features based on Senge Model in the particular manufacturing companies?

What is the element in Senge LO Model that is prominent in the preferred manufacturing firms?

How value is the difference of LO dimension between the three clusters of making firms?


To investigate the evidence of learning corporation traits predicated on Senge Model in the selected manufacturing companies.

To determine the factor in Senge LO Model that is dominant in the decided on manufacturing firms

To determine whether there's a relevance difference in the sizing of LO in three clusters of the processing firms.

1. 4 Range, Limitations and Key Assumption of the project

This study is dependant on Senge's model of learning organization. One of the models concerning explanation of learning organization is Peter Senge's model. The essence of the model is the interconnectedness between individual learning and organizational learning. Firm cannot learn until all the customers get started to learn. (Senge, 1990). The respondents will be chosen from three areas of manufacturing in Malaysia; motor vehicle, consumer electronics and ICT.

There are some restrictions in this research. This research won't cover a business culture and company tips of view in both these principle since time restrictions as well as physical factors. This research only includes developing companies in Malaysia and will not have the ability to done research some other area or country. This might lead the results of the study only on that one area.

Some of the respondent (Professionals and Supervisors) may refuse to respond since some of the companies explained some guidelines on rules about company confidentiality.

1. 5 Importance of the Project

This analysis was designed to investigate the implementation of organizational learning notion in Malaysian creation concept. This research was also designed to determine the prominent element in Senge's five disciplines which may have been applied in Malaysian manufacturing companies. By reaching both these objectives, the researcher may able to know the improvement and development of Malaysian manufacturing in the organizational learning. This research also mostly of the research that concentrating on Senge's five disciplines.

This research was hoped to provide more understanding to managers and supervisors in making use of organizational learning as well as building a learning business. This research might be able to give supervisor a clearer view on Senge's five disciplines and the effects from it on a business. It could also give the industrial a fresh take on the difference in the dimensions of organizational learning in three clusters of the developing organizations.

1. 6 Summary

This chapter includes the directions of this research. The benefits explains briefly the meaning of organizational learning and Senge's five disciplines. This section also explains the objectives of this research as well as the research questions of this study.

The need for this research could it be will explain the type of the learning organization predicated on Malaysian production companies. It will also learn how well Senge's model is identified by the companies.



2. 1 Introductions

This chapter highlights the books review on organizational learning which are made up the definition of the organizational learning as well as the rich history of it. It'll make clear about Senge Five Disciplines Models. This research used various guide materials as helpful information lines such as catalogs, journals, thesis and other shared medium. The information from this research can be used to fortify the understanding and conceptualized research platform.

2. 2 Organizational Learning

Organizational Learning is known as one of the very most powerful tools within an organization ongoing improvement. Organizational learning can be defined in many ways since there are no absolute ways to apply organizational learning within an firm but there is only one goal in organizational learning which is people on all levels within an organizational by separately or by group continually and consistently improves their knowledge and potential on carrying out to work given to them.

Organizational learning is very important as its give an organization a clear vision or milestones where and what the organization wants to attain in couple of years ahead. It also important to know that your company grows over time by learning and this is merely what organizational learning can do for an organization. As today electro-mechanical and electronic digital industry are more competitive than ever, it's important and at the same time relieving to learn that your organization is learning and got what it takes to compete.

2. 2. 1 Description of Organizational Learning

Organizational learning has been around for an extended time period and there have been several definition to identify organizational learning.

Arygis(1977) identifies organizational learning as "detection and correction of errors". He recognizes that an company learns from the individuals or the employees. He explained that "The individuals' learning activities, subsequently, are facilitated or inhibited by an ecological system of factors which may be called an organizational learning system" (Arygris, 1977, p. 117)

One of the theorists in this field, Huber (1991) looked at organizational learning from behavioral point of view. "An entity learns if, through its processing of information, the number of its potential behaviours is altered. " (Huber, 1991) Out of this statement, an individual's effectiveness or potential does not always improve by learning. Moreover, learning does not need to lead to changes that can be seen in behavior. Knowledge acquisition, information circulation, information interpretation, and organizational memory is a four build as integrally linked to organizational learning as has been considered by Huber. He discussed that learning does not need to be conscious or intentional.

Some other noteworthy definitions of organizational learning from well-known theorist in the field are

"The power of an organization to gain understanding and understanding from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis, and a willingness to look at both successes and failures" (McGill et al, 1992).

"where you are unable to not learn because learning is so insinuated in to the textile of life. " (Senge, 1990)

"an organization of people continuously improving their capacity to create what they want to create. "(Senge, 1990)

"A Learning Company is an organisation that helps the learning of most its customers and continuously changes itself"(Mike Pedlar, Tom Boydell, John Burgoyne, 1988)

"The Learning Organisation often means two things : it can mean an company which learns and organisation which induces learning in its people. It should suggest both" (Charles Handy, 1989)

2. 2. 2 Background of Organizational Learning

As has been discussed earlier in chapter 1, organizational learning was first presented by Cyert and March (1963). The idea of System Thinking was unveiled in the 1950s. This concept implying that the organization needs to be aware about the organization as well as the individuals on the organization. Before this concept was released, most company only concentrate on the organization goals without taking into consideration the workers needs. This idea was never put in place in any corporation in those days. Gould-Kreutzer Associates, Inc. described System Thinking as

"A construction for seeing interrelationships somewhat than things; to see the forest and the trees. " (Gould-Kreutzer Affiliates, Inc)

This statement evidently stated that system thinking is theory that not only focusing on business or an organizational goals but to target individuals needs and goals. The forest this is a metaphor for company and the trees and shrubs is a metaphor for folks or workers in the organization. This concept is trying to change the managerial views in those days from being business goals-oriented to constant improvement.

From the concept of System Thinking, a new system emerged which was called Decision Support System (DSS). This concept is changing the traditional way of decisions making. This new model help exec to make decisions for the business future. Incidentally, the model benefits management more rather than the system's operation. This is because the model more focuses on what the business enterprise really was and providing the alternatives for the future. Among DSS major contribution is the fact that it made implicit knowledge explicit. This has caused the business have more knowledge to explore and find out better than before since explicit knowledge distributed much faster throughout the business. Because of this, DSS is seen as additional method of communication.

The idea of this idea later was renamed into organizational learning in 1970s. Some have stated that the term of "Organizational Learning" was launched by Cyert and March (1963). Among the earliest theorists in organizational learning was but still is Chris Arygris. He released a e book entitled "Organizational Learning" in 1978 and "Organizational Learning II" in 1996. In those days, Organizational Learning theory was still not taken significantly by any organizations.

Not until Peter Senge published the publication "The Fifth Ideas: The Art work and Practice of The Learning Corporation" in 1990 the organizational learning is considered importantly. This booklet effect many organizations to start out taking Organizational learning into consideration. Since then, organizational learning has advanced until what of we known as today.

2. 3 The Fifth Discipline: The Skill and Practice of the training Organization

In 1990, Peter Senge, one of the theorist and gurus in Organizational Learning shared a publication that modified the managerial views. The reserve entitled The Fifth Key points: The Artwork and Practice of The Learning Company. In the reserve, Senge list out five discipline that is clearly a must in a learning organizational. The five disciplines are Personal Mastery, System Thinking, Mental Models, Shared Eyesight and Team Learning.

2. 3. 1 Personal Mastery

"Organizations learn only through those who learn. Individual learning will not promise organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs" (Senge, 1990, p. 139)

"Personal mastery is the willpower of continuously clarifying and deepening our personal eye-sight, of focusing our energies, of developing perseverance, and of discovering fact objectively" (Senge, 1990, p. 7)

"It runs beyond competence and skills, though it involves them. It moves beyond spiritual opening, although it will involve spiritual progress" (Senge, 1990, p. 141)

From these citations from Senge, we can conclude that an organization only learns when the individuals or the personnel in the organizations begin to learn. Personal mastery from the traits that each individuals must have. The higher level of personal mastery an individual has the stronger their will to keep learning and improve themselves.

Peter Senge mentioned in his publication Personal Mastery as "People who have a high degree of personal mastery reside in a continual learning function. They never 'occur'. Sometimes, language, such as the term 'personal mastery' creates a misleading sense of definiteness, of dark and white. But personal mastery is not something you possess. It is a process. It really is a lifelong self-discipline. People with an increased level of personal mastery are acutely alert to their ignorance, their incompetence, their development areas. And they are deeply self-confident. Paradoxical? Only for those who do not see the 'trip is the reward". (Senge, 1990, p. 142)

From what Senge has cited, we know that the goals aren't the praise; the quest toward the goals is the compensation itself. The lifelong procedure for learning is what Personal Mastery is all about. The acknowledgement of being unsure of and the desire to learn is what drives a person to learn and achieve Personal Mastery. In other words, without Personal Mastery disciplines in the individuals, the organizations might never commence to learn.

Those who have a high degree of Personal Mastery might often find requesting these kinds of questions to themselves;

Why do I must learn this?

Why could it be important to learn?

To summarize it, personal Mastery helps and books an individual to understand what they have and what they don't really. In addition, it makes an individual alert to their attitude and notion as well as be sensible with their action.

2. 3. 2 System Thinking

In his publication, Peter Senge also includes a system theory among the five disciplines. Some have claimed that system thinking is the conceptual cornerstone of the Senge's five self-discipline models. This due to the fact of peter Senge said it himself; "It's the willpower that integrates the others, fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice" (Senge, 1990, p. 12)

Senge discussed more on system thinking in his publication. He described system thinking is interconnected with other four disciplines. "Systems considering also needs the disciplines of creating shared vision, mental models, team learning, and personal mastery to realize its potential. Building shared vision fosters a commitment to the future. Mental models focus on the openness had a need to unearth shortcomings in our present means of seeing the planet. Team learning develops the skills of groups of people to look for the bigger picture beyond specific perspectives. And personal mastery fosters the non-public motivation to constantly understand how our actions have an impact on our world. " (Senge, 1990, p. 12)

System thinking can be said as something that should be use on overcoming problems as a whole, not only on that particular problem. Centering only on specific part or problem may lead to unwanted or unintended effects. Instead of centering only on that specific parts or problems System Thinking take bigger accounts and investigate the relationships of the parts or issues with every other elements of the system.

This characteristic helps it be an effective fixing method specially when coping with difficult types of problems. The problems that involving intricate issues and needed to be seen by "big picture", the issues that repeating or depending on past, and the problems which the solution are not obvious are the ones that needed the application of System Thinking.

As Peter Senge said in his publication, "We learn best from our experience, but we never immediately experience the effects of many of our most important decisions", (Senge, 1990, p. 23) we have a tendency to focus only on the answer that problems cause but only on the short-terms. System Considering forces a business not only concentrating on the perfect solution is for improvement for a shot-term but at the long-term as well.

Peter Senge also urged organizations to utilize System map. System map is a diagram showing the important elements or parts in the organization and how these were connected to one another.

Here is the exemplory case of System Map.

(Source: www. cogneon. de)

C:\Users\NAIM RAHIM\Downloads\learning-organization. png

Figure 2. 1 System Map Learning Organizations

2. 3. 3 Mental Models

Peter Senge defines Mental Models as "deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that affect how exactly we understand the world and how we take action" (Senge, 1990, p. 8)

Mental models will be the vision we have in our brain. How our mind process the items we see and that which you be prepared to happen in the foreseeable future. For example, when we see a bullet shot to a balloon, our mind would come out with what would eventually the balloon. Most of us would have the eyesight of the balloon explode. From this example, we can suppose that our head can show the same vision. Making use of this to an organization, if the workers or individuals in the business distributed the same eyesight, they can changed their patterns and condition their strategies and internal ways of working.

"The willpower of mental models starts with turning the reflection inward; understanding how to unearth our inner pictures of the world, to bring them to the surface and carry them rigorously to scrutiny. In addition, it includes the capability to carry on 'learningful' conversations that balance inquiry and advocacy, where people expose their own thinking effectively and make that thinking available to the effect of others. " (Senge, 1990, p. 9)

From this citation, Peter Senge said that every thought should be talked about and revealed so everyone can learn and influence from ones thought. Using this method, an organization can start learning as everyone will begin to learn new skills and develop new orientations parallel to the organization goals. Senge also said that Mental Models is "Moving the organization in the right course entails attempting to transcend the sorts of inner politics and game participating in that dominate traditional organizations. Quite simply this means fostering openness" (Senge, 1990, p. 273-286).

Senge continuing by declaring "It also involves seeking to spread business responsibly far more widely while retaining coordination and control. Learning organizations are localized organizations" (Senge, 1990, p. 287-301)

Models are not perfect but sometimes it could be useful. In this case, Mental Models are not an exceptional but if the organization deploying it in the right ways, there are so a lot of things it can study from it.

2. 3. 4 Building Shared Vision

Shared vision refers to the ability for a business to share or contain the same goals or future that they would like to achieve. Regarding to Senge, creating a shared eyesight is "the capacity to carry a talk about picture of the future we seek to create" (Senge, 1990, p. 9)

Building a distributed vision for an organization is vital. All individuals in the organization will work toward one goal, which can make the organization, are more effective. This can also foster a feeling of the permanent which is fundamentally one of the five disciplines central beliefs.

When there is a genuine eyesight (instead of the all-to-familiar 'perspective assertion'), people excel and learn, not because they are informed to, but because they want to. But many leaders have personal visions that never get translated into distributed visions that galvanize an firm What has been missing is a willpower for translating eye-sight into shared eyesight - not really a 'cookbook' but a couple of rules and guiding practices. (Senge, 1990, p. 9)

"The practice of shared vision involves the abilities of unearthing distributed 'pictures of the future' that foster genuine determination and enrolment somewhat than compliance. In mastering this discipline, leaders learn the counter-productiveness of seeking to dictate a eye-sight, no matter how heartfelt. " (Senge, 1990, p. 9)

It is very important for any group leader to realize the importance of shared vision. The leader not only can command the staff to do things but also to create a learning organization which the staff not only learn continually because they need to, but because they want to. The individuals in the organization also play an important role in distributed vision. They must plainly understand the distributed vision of the business and also know where they are at the present and they desire to be in the foreseeable future.

2. 3. 5 Team Learning

According to Senge, team learning is "the process of aligning and producing the capacities of your team to generate the results its associates truly desire"(Senge, 1990, p. 236)

By having Personal Mastery and Shared Eye-sight, an organization may have Team Learning. But most of the times it isn't enough. A business needs to obtain the workers to act together. By getting the workers interact as a team, the distributed eyesight and personal mastery become better and the organizational learning can be achieve.

"The willpower of team learning starts off with 'dialogue', the capacity of members of the team to suspend assumptions and enter into a genuine 'thinking alongside one another'. Towards the Greeks dia-logos designed a free-flowing if indicating through an organization, allowing the group to discover insights not achievable individually. [It] also entails learning how to identify the patterns of conversation in groups that undermine learning". (Senge, 1990, p. 10)

To start team learning, the people of the business must commence to speak their head up. In my opinion, this is what Senge means by "dialogue". When people commence to speak up their brain, other people would give their own opinion and begin a talk or a "genuine thinking together". It also helps the group to attain an insight which can not have the ability to be performed by thinking independently. By using team learning, the team may identify the sort of interaction which could stop the training progress in the team.

"As people discuss, the vision grows clearer. As it gets clearer, passion because of its benefits grow'" (Senge, 1990, p. 227)

By constantly sharing insightful information and knowledge, the visions become clearer and the eagerness will be disperse among the individuals in the business.

2. 4 Human relationships between Senge Five Disciplines Model, Organizational Learning and Malaysian production companies.

Manufacturing industry is most likely one of the very most competitive establishments in Malaysia. That is why it is very important for the making companies to keep learning. The companies that with the capacity of learning will have a large gain than those who didn't. On this research, the researcher will try to found out the evidence of Senge Five Disciplines model that forms a learning organization in Malaysian developing companies. Lately, Malaysian making companies begin to adjust to the learning organization ideas but it was never been turned out that Senge Five disciplines models were found in their effort on becoming a learning group.

2. 5 Summary

From this chapter, we can conclude that we now have the relationship is present between Senge Five Disciplines Model, Organizational Learning and Malaysian production companies. By understanding the partnership between these three, the question now occur concerning which disciplines from the five disciplines are the dominant element in Malaysian manufacturing companies. The theoretical framework because of this research such as Desk 2. 1

Malaysian Developing Companies

Learning Organization

Team Learning

Shared Vision

Mental Models

System Thinking

Personal MasteryIndependent Variables

Dependent Variables

Table 2. 1 Theoretical Framework



3. 1 Introduction

This chapter outlines the research the study design for this study and the way in which where the research was conducted. The research methodology used in this study is detailed. This chapter involves research design, method research design, key and secondary data options, research strategy, and technological canons. The tools used to collect data are also explained.

3. 2 Research Design

"Research design can be divided into fixed and versatile research designs" (Robson, 1993). Such as this research, the quantitative way was considered. As has been described by Melts away and Grove (1993, p. 777) quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process to spell it out and test marriage and examine cause and effect interactions among factors. Research design is important because it gives the course to the analysis and what to find that may be significant to the analysis.

3. 2. 1 Exploratory studies

An exploratory research is a kind of studies or research conducted when the issues are not clearly identified. Exploratory studies usually will depend on supplementary research such as critiquing past journals, literature and data, interviewing experts on the market, conducting in-depth specific interview and sometimes executing emphasis group interview.

3. 2. 2 Descriptive studies

Descriptive studies sometimes can be known as statistical research. "The aim of descriptive studies is to get an accurate account of events, individuals or situations" (Saunders, 1997). Descriptive studies usually involved observing and describing the patterns of subject without influencing it in any way. Descriptive studies cannot describe what cause a situation although the info information is factual, accurate and organized.

3. 2. 3 Explanatory studies

The explanatory studies explained just how of certain event. The final results of event could be either positive or negative. So essentially, the explanatory research is a research that conducted to determine and to explain any behavior or event.

3. 3 Research Design Method

The research design for this analysis is the utilizing the quantitative method. Research and questionnaire may be used for the descriptive, explanatory and exploratory research. The questionnaire in this research is a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed for data and information collection and it'll be distributes in person by the researcher. This research design was chosen to perform the aims of the analysis and the researcher believes that the quantitative method is the best way to meet those goals.

3. 3. 1 Quantitative Method

Quantitative research method is a non-numeric data such as words, images, videos, and other similar materials. The aim of quantitative research is to develop statistically reliable information from sample data that can be generalized to a larger inhabitants (Dutka, 1995). Quantitative research runs on the relatively short structured questionnaire, as the survey sample should be large enough in order to provide a statistically reliable set of responses.

The collected information is also analyzed using specific statistical techniques and quantitative tools. Regarding customer satisfaction way of measuring and producing new product, this kind of research is targeted on the quantification of satisfaction information. The most frequently used types of quantitative research are email review, personal interviews, and phone studies (Gerson, 1993).

3. 4 Most important and secondary data sources

In this research, the data and information gathered from two main sources which will be the major resources and the extra resources.

3. 4. 1 Major data

The key data because of this research are the publication from Peter Senge which was released in 1990, The Fifth Principles: The Skill and Practice of The Learning Organization. Another primary data for this research is the questionnaire which will be sent out to three industries of developing in Malaysia; motor vehicle, gadgets and ICT. From here, the researcher will gather the info in the three sectors managers or supervisors that involved in the research whether by face-to-face, e-mail, calls or any other ways.

3. 4. 2 Supplementary data

The secondary data in this review were collected prior to the researcher proceeds to gather the primary data in the three areas of developing industry in Malaysia; motor vehicle, consumer electronics and ICT. A couple of useful information was accumulated as it has already been exist by means of secondary data. The secondary data that was found in this analysis are journals, relevant internets site, newspapers and articles.

3. 5 Location of Research

The lacation or this research would be focusing on Malaysian Processing. The group concentration would be

3. 6 Research Strategy

Research strategy can be explained as a plan for a researcher to attain the objectives of the analysis as well as how the reascher heading to answer the research questions. There are several strategies you can use in research strategies such as Experimental, review, archival research and research study.

The researchers choose the survey technique for this study. The reason review method was chose is because they permit the gather quantitative data and can suggest possible known reasons for particular marriage between independent parameters and dependent factors. It also gives the researcher more control over the study process as well as low in cost compared to other methods. The strategies for the study method are the following

Preparing the Survey

As has been mentioned before, the research will be using quantitative method where a set of review is used to gather related data and information because of this analysis. The questionnaire or the research were constructed based on the research question and research aims. The respondent for the questionnaire is the employees from Malaysian creation industries.

Survey research design

The review design divided to many ways. A couple of organised way (the formal list of questions use and all the respondents have to answer the same question) and unstructured way (the researcher investigate the respondents and guide the interview regarding to respondent's answers (Kothari, C. R. , 1985). ) it can also be direct and indirect. The immediate strategy is when the researcher asks directly to the respondent about the main point. As for the indirect, the researcher will asks indirect question that can lead to discovering the main point.


The test is the population that was prefer to get respondent in the study. According to Uses up and Grove (1993, p779), a people is thought as all elements (individuals, objects and happenings) that meet the sample requirements for addition is a study. The study population consisted of the employees in the Malaysian production industries.

The researcher might determined randomly employees from the sectors (probability test) or the employees that simpler to have the data and information (non-probability)

3. 7 Scientific Canons

3. 7. 1 Reliability

Reliability is the power of a study instrument to produce accurate and constant result. There are many threats to reliability which is participant mistake, participant bias, and researcher error and researcher bias. In order to avoid these dangers to interfere the study results, the researcher will conduct the study as transparent as it can be and can allow others party to interfere and assess the analysis. The researcher will also use Cronbach's coefficient alpha to test the interim regularity consistency of respondent's response to all items in measure.

3. 7. 2 Build Validity

Construct validity identifies whether a scale or test measure what exactly the researcher have a tendency to measure. In this particular research, the questionnaire was use as the various tools to gauge the interactions between Senge Fifth Disciplines Model with organizational learning in Malaysian manufacturing companies. In order to avoid threats to create validity, the researcher build the questionnaire by using others (Supervisor) to avoid any bias or error in the questions. To gauge the construct validity, researcher might pre-test the questionnaire in small people and when the test proven that the questionnaire have strong construct validity, the researcher then will proceed to allocated the questionnaire to the actual emphasis group. Another option to test the construct validity is by using ANOVA, if the time permits.

3. 7. 3 Internal Validity

Internal validity is the "truth" or the partnership between the unbiased variables with the dependent variables in the study. The other word for this marriage is the causal marriage or cause-effect relationship.

The independent factors in this analysis were the Senge Fifth Disciplines Model as the dependent variables because of this review were the organizational learning. Internal validity is about causal control. In this case, the sole reasons the manufacturing companies in Malaysia learn is because the implementation of Senge Fifth Disciplines in the organization.

There are several hazards in the internal validity such as past and recent situations, testing and instrumentation to avoid these risks to hinder the study, the researcher will consult the expert (Supervisor) for advice.

3. 7. 4 External Validity

External validity is the capability to generalize the analysis to other folks and other situation. "External validity asks the question of generalizability: From what populations, adjustments, treatment factors and measurement variables can this result be generalized?"(Campbell, Stanley, 1966)

For this research it gets the exterior validity since it talks about organizational learning which can be applied at any other creation company in the world. However, there are a few threats in this study in external validity.

Cultural Bias

Since this analysis is focusing on Malaysian manufacturing companies, the results might be only found in Malaysia or country which may have almost the same making industries expansion.

3. 8 Summary

To summarize it, this section explains about the method that will be used for this review. The steps to assemble the information and data would be quantitative method. For being narrower, the study method was chosen and the questionnaire will be allocated. The foundation of major data and secondary data were also explained. The emphasis group because of this research, the validity and trustworthiness of the research were talked about by the researcher.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)