Organization theory is the analysis of the design and framework of corporation which describes the way the foundation of every organization is organised and suggests how their efficiency and efficiency can be increased (Griffin 2012).
Theory alters the methods that organizations systematize their notions and understanding and will be offering different perspectives of enjoying the world as to why different business performs differently in one another (Robbins & Barnwell 2002). The goal of this article is to grasp the different theories used in organizations that may produce different results in neuro-scientific power, control and conflict and structure within an group and discuss how organizations can use multiple perspectives together to achieve their goals and goal without being too rigid or adaptable. As different perspectives create different ideas and information, we will explore the key perspectives showing how each is recognized by different assumptions that define the way organizations are recognized and interpreted. In this essay, we will discuss the several perspectives and the ideas and ideas underlining them and the advantages and cons of by using a multi-perspective approach to understanding organizations. The perspectives that will be discussed and contrasted are modernism, critical theory and postmodernism.
Literature review of perspectives
Ontology is the research and research about certainty and organization. The former question whether there can be an objective fact that has already been out there or could it be just plainly subjective that existence is only inside our mind as the latter addresses the quality of company which explains the take action of free will (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).
The ontology assumption of modernist and critical theory takes a stand on "objectivism" which suggests that the lifestyle of a topic matter is out there no matter one's recognition or experience which leads to a foreseeable behavior in people as they differentiate their conduct to be connected towards the materials world they are really in (Bryman & bell 2003).
The ontology assumption for symbolic interpretivism is of subjectivism. Subjectivists assume that reality is produced and is arranged upon by experience and supplying it indicating by the individual or group whom subject it to their interests.
On the other hand, the ontology assumption for postmodernism is where they view truth as a delusion created by discourses, such as through conversations and communication. Hence, lifestyle is a text message to be known or performed (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).
Epistemology concerns with how knowledge and information can be accumulated and interpreted. The debate is definitely of how knowledge is produced as well as whether it is good or bad. Epistemology relates closely to ontology because how everyone believes will have an effect on how knowledge is interpreted and obtained through various methods. Modernists are positivists. They presume that knowledge is discoverable within an corporation through categorization and reliable way of measuring of the actions of individuals and the systems. For instance, good and appropriate knowledge and information is created by growing propositions and hypotheses, obtaining and assessing data through clinical methods (Bryman & bell 2003). On the other hand, critical Theory supports subjectivism that they think that knowledge is with regards to individual prices and perceptions. Symbolic interpretivism advocates that the complete knowledge is in accordance with the knower and will only be known from the individuals who are directly involved while postmodernism backs the epistemology that there stand no facts and interpretations brings about individual's knowledge of the data.
Organizational Vitality and control
According to Giddens (1985), electric power is the capacity of an acting professional to intervene in a couple of situations given and alter or effect the activities of another acting professional. There are many sources of electricity such as formal specialist, experience, coercion and personal characteristics just to name a few. Different perspectives contribute to different thoughts about the utilization and constraints of in an organization. Within an organization, specialist and electricity could be managed by management by handling the staffs. Employees are enforced by control to conform to goals and targets of the organization. Its process includes the utilization of sanctions and rewards, internalization of beliefs and norms.
In the modernism perspective, power is were able to improve performance and efficiency of a business. Modernists focus on maintaining and handling power. They have also come up with various methods of control to keep electricity, conflict and level of resistance in place. Some modernist theories of electric power and control are bureaucratic, organization and clan control ideas (Huglin 2003).
Bureaucratic theories use regulations, guidelines and formalized methods and the expert hierarchy to regulate and control employees' patterns and to examine performance (Daft 2009). The main point is to create standardization of worker behavior to fall into line with the interest and goals of the organization and conformity to these specifications by employees will be compensated. Modernists believe that managers and supervisors will be given capacity to rational-legal power that resulted from departmentalization and hierarchal organizational. Employee's compliance to guidelines and steps will be meticulously supervised and supervised by those with legitimate specialist. Therefore, from a modernist perspective, company success and goals may be accomplished through bureaucratic control (Levina & Orlikowski 2009).
Agency theory assumes mechanisms of contract, security and rewards to make sure activities from the professionals are always in the best interest of the company. The authority of managers is used to accomplish the goals of the organization instead of their own interests. This process involves signing contract with professionals which specifies goals and solution and performing security by collecting data and supervising the conformity of managers to interacting with contractual tasks and awarding them for appealing behavior as well as for accomplishing conditions of agreement (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).
Clan control ideas depend after the cultural system such beliefs, shared ideals and commitment to keep employees in control and eliminate goals incongruence among them (Daft 2009). This is exercised by means of creating appealing culture in the organization by socializing employees and influencing group patterns in expectations, cultural beliefs and norms. A research study is the fact DHL adopted clan control by picking and using candidates who fits the DHL culture and expanding activities as a socialization tool reinforce common values and goals on the list of employees (Chan 1997).
Alternatively, post-modernists struggle the modernist concept of vitality and control. They view power and control existing in a person or in a particular position. They see electric power and control being rooted in every social relations and in the regular practices of monitoring and self-surveillance in the organization (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). From point of view of post-modernists, discourse produces counter discourse and therefore power generates resistance in an firm. Foucault (1978) declares that electricity is multidimensional and happens all over thus even while employees try to oppose to power, they could never be free from power as they'll be faced by other types of power that is already existing in the public structure of the business. Post-modernists rebuke the modernist methods of control and view the three modernists control ideas mentioned preceding as routine practices of monitoring that gives go up to self-surveillance by users of organization as a result of expectation of control and fear of "spot-checking" that will lead to self-disempowerment (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). This led to employees being abided by working mechanistically as they were bounded by contracts with the organization to meet certain criteria of performance and also to get good performance evaluation by the management; they experienced advanced of stress and a robotic lifestyle that involves losing their creativeness, commitment and restrict them from pondering 'out of the package' and therefore not having the ability to perform with their fullest probable in their functions.
It is difficult to co-exist modernists and post-modernists perspective in relation to electric power and control as both oppose each other in their ideology and having coexisting them may cause confusion, conflict and counter-productive within the organization as a disadvantage.
On the other side, critical theory point of view aligns with modernists on the ontological stand for 'Objectivism' but upholds the epistemological position of subjectivists. Modernists and critical theorists may co-exist hand in hand in an group although there could be some differences. One of these of a business which fuses both modernist and critical thinking is Apple co. Apple's past due CEO Steve Jobs practices a very tight control and has a company secrecy plan where it places employees into correct areas of know-how and not subjected to duties outside their scope of responsibility which led to a centered and disciplined frame of mind Apple is rolling out for its staffs and procedure, reason being to put into action the right to control knowledge and information movement across the company. It follows the foundation of vitality and control of the modernism perspective including the bureaucracy theory where compulsory meetings are held on a every week basis led by late CEO Steve Jobs and department mind are to record and upgrade him on the progress of the company (Lashinsky 2011). In addition, employees at Apple are coerced to adopt their functions and responsibilities that they are given and choose a good attitude towards their work. Due to the organization ideology that Apple has imposed onto its group, the mindset and mentality of its employees have been modified to allow a basis of control and dominance over them which is identified by critical theorists as the status of 'phony consciousness' in it as they willingly admit the power and control that is imposed in it (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). In so doing, it is brings better efficiency and output to an organization and its own employees are usually more centered about their roles and responsibility.
Physical structure of organization
The physical framework of a business involves three elements which are its organizational geography, design and architectonic design of buildings (Kyvik 2009). From a modernist point of view, the physical composition of an organization can be an affect to the behaviour of its employees and therefore achieve its organizational efficiencies. It influences the communication of ideas and information as well as the coordination of activities over the company (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). For example, having an available office stimulates more connections and the bonding of connections between employees which permit them to are better and more effectively in clubs.
Post modernists criticize modernists' viewpoint on the physical composition of an organization as materials expressions of implanted electric power relationships where it can be used by people that have authority to uphold ability over others (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). For example, the CEO office being located on the highest degree of the building, the positioning and size of the executive office buildings and the gain access to rights of professionals within the building displays the relationships of power within an business. Therefore, post-modernists have recommended de-differentiation by redesigning the space and layout of the business to open-planned concept as to provide tone to the marginalized employees and for that reason donate to a democratic corporation.
Google runs on the post-modernism perspective in the design and layout for its building, the Googleplex. In Googleplex, both the founders, Page and Brin show an office situated at the second floor near to the regular employees which does not reflect a solid sense of expert and without bureaucracy structure to filter their tourists. Furthermore, Googleplex follows an open-plan office layout that is fixed with very few solo offices. In the modernists' perspective, the design of corporation space and design are also intended to stimulate the behaviour of the employees in Yahoo such as the installing cubes, huddle rooms and yurts around Googleplex as locations for meetings (Google 2012). By doing so, it induces more relationships and exchanging of ideas and knowledge among its employees and thus promoting relationship bonding. This is a major good thing about creating a multi-perspective view in an organization.
Google is an effective business that although is very much leaned towards a post-modernism thought process, it still helps to keep modernists perspectives in check for some reason to enrich and enhance its productivity and efficiency. For instance, certain decisions and procedures are still manufactured by the most notable management in Yahoo.
In bottom line, although different point of view contribute to different ways of viewing and understanding organizations and also impacts the way they are being run, they can be nevertheless a rejection between one another but instead, it we can have substitute views from the other point of view. There might have been cons in utilizing a multi-perspective but there are certainly more advantages. Successful and big organizations like Apple and Google both uses multiple perspectives in their functions and also have since achieved efficiency and output.
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