Attitude to work, attitudes toward work
Workers who are not motivated to work carry out their duties in the minimum amount - as a result, the quality suffers and the competitiveness of the firm decreases. One of the secrets of business is to stimulate employees to the desired organization of work behavior and instill in them enthusiasm. The task of companies is to bring incentives to staff in accordance with organizational goals, on the one hand, and in line with the internal motives of labor behavior of workers - on the other. Stimulation presents difficulties for managers, since as the system encompasses all employees who differ from each other by their many personal characteristics and human qualities, they are alive, i.e. constantly changing systems living in an ever-changing environment. One of the generalizing parameters of the personality's orientation, which determines the vector and degree of effort applied for the performance of the work assignment, is motivation for work. The strength of motivation for work is, in turn, an aspect of the attitude towards work, which determines the labor behavior, which is able to show both the attitude towards work, and the motivation to work. Thus, labor behavior as a system of actions expresses an attitude toward work, and the attitude toward work largely depends on motivation to work.
Attitude to work - emotionally colored subjective assessment of all labor factors, the unity of the three elements:
• motives and value orientations - personal values shared by the individual, acting as goals of life and criteria for selecting means to achieve these goals;
• real work behavior;
• employee's assessment of his behavior in the work situation (verbal behavior).
The Yerkes-Dodson Law (Figure 4.1) is a curved bell-shaped curve that reflects the form of the connection between the power of emotional excitement and the success of human activity. The curve shows that the most productive is the activity performed with a moderate, optimal level of excitement (motivation). The magnitudes of the degree of excitation and the level of success of the activity are of an individual nature.
Fig. 4.1. The Yerkes-Dodson Law
On the falling section of the curve, disorganization of activity may occur, since the level of emotional excitement is so high that it allows us to speak about the state of stress. To ensure success, the employee must be in a state of moderate arousal. In case of excessive excitement, one should not expect positive results.
Since the connection between success in activity and the level of mental stress (excitation, experiences, emotions experienced) is not only obvious, but also scientifically justified,
can be concluded for both employees and employers: in order to ensure success, the employee must be in a state of moderate arousal. In case of excessive excitement, when you took the employee out of yourself or re-motivated him, you should not expect positive results. For example, you give a task, on the basis of which further employee's stay in your organization depends. His desire to perform this vital work can be so great, emotional excitement so significant that it will exceed the limits of his stress-resistance and cause disorganization of activity, a nervous breakdown, worsen the result.
The attitude to work can be judged by objective and subjective indicators. Objective sociologists include the degree of responsibility, conscientiousness, initiative, discipline, which are determined by the number and quality of the work performed, the number of proposals to improve it, and the desire to improve their professionalism. The subjective indicator of attitudes toward work is usually the degree of job satisfaction and such factors as pay, organization, working conditions, relationships with management and colleagues. The highest degree of satisfaction is the pride of your work and your organization.
Modern approaches to man in production are based on the understanding of the decisive role of attitudes toward work for the prosperity of the organization. Advanced enterprises spare no effort in identifying and improving the elements, factors contributing to the emergence of a person's sense of satisfaction with work, pride in their work.
The models explaining the process of the origin of the motive for this or that activity (or passivity) are numerous. Some of them call the causes and factors of the formation of a motive, others consider the process of formation of the motive depending on the degree of significance of certain factors, others try to integrate these approaches, the fourth ones are developed on the basis of research of labor factors that increase the attractiveness of labor and the atmosphere of work , working life. The palette of explanatory theories as well as the tools stimulating the labor behavior of the tools is quite large, and the manager is obliged, based on the knowledge of each concrete employee and (or) group, to select the most appropriate levers of influence, in accordance with the situation and capabilities of the organization.
One of these levers is the motive - a set of internal motives for activity based on perceived or unconscious needs, on interest, on ideas about values, etc. As a rule, a person performs actions under the influence of a number of motives , which are a disposition of motives, but among them one can distinguish actual, leading and dominating motives. The disposition of motives and the leading motive are impermanent, their environment is influenced by the external environment and personality characteristics.
Foreign scientists often attach the concept of "motive" to " a slightly different meaning than United States: motivation - structure, the system of motives for the activity and behavior of the subject, motive - motivating oneself and others for action. At the same time, the West distinguishes the internal (the motivation for activity is determined by the personal goals of the subject-needs, interests, values) and external motivation (motivation for action is determined by goals set from outside, by coercion, agreement on the exchange of the result of the employee's work for good, psychological influence for the formation the same goals as the entrepreneur). External motivation is expedient to call motivation, and better - stimulation.
Incentive is an external motivation for activities related to the impact of factors and subjects external to the person. Western scientists, as a rule, do not use the word "stimulus": usually the term "external motivation" is used to refer to external influence.
We list the main organizational and managerial factors that operate throughout the organization, which affect the improvement of the attitude of workers towards work and, as a result, improve organizational results:
• an attractive mission and vision of the future of the organization, a convincing and sound development strategy, goals, philosophy, goals and policies in the field of personnel
• development of teams and work in teams;
• high quality of working life;
• favorable socio-psychological climate;
• A strong and ethical-based organizational culture;
• Ensuring diversity of the workforce and competent management of diversity;
• development of the competence of managers, their emotional intelligence;
• development of flexibility of employees;
• application of Japanese management methods;
• raising the level of qualifications of employees, continuous training;
• career planning for employees;
• elimination of discrimination.
To improve the attitude of employees to work at the level of the unit, the working group affects the daily work of managers, aimed at:
• formation of loyalty and ownership;
• Identification of workers' needs;
• enrichment of workers' labor;
• delegation of authority to subordinates;
• implementation of an individual approach;
• formation of an attractive vision of the future group;
• making feedback;
• conducting personal interviews with employees;
• implementing supportive communications;
• effective remote personnel management;
• Conflict resolution and elimination of discrimination.
The manager's awareness of his social role is manifested, in particular, in the desire to understand the characteristics of the employee who is subordinate to him as a person and professional, the motives for his behavior and take them into account when issuing an assignment and awarding remuneration for his performance.
For example, as a method of practical implementation of the approaches of procedural theories of motivation in the production environment, it is recommended to develop predictions of the values of motivation factors for the employee before issuing the task to him, calculate the expected level of motivation and compare the actual results with the forecast in order to increase his probability. So, before issuing an assignment, the manager is recommended to fill out the Employee Motivation Assessment Form, in which it is necessary to give an expert assessment of the worker's attitude to the expected results, to the significance of the results, to assess the probability of successful completion of work (according to the employee) and the value of the reward. In fact, the leader is invited to take the position of an employee, to look at the task with his eyes and assess the level of his motivation for the task. Upon completion of the work, it is proposed to analyze the accuracy of the forecast and think over measures to strengthen the motivation and increase the likelihood of a forecast. 1
The authors of such an approach represent the complexity of its implementation and some idealism of its proposal. But since a normal modern leader, when issuing a task, solves the tasks of motivating an employee and stimulating the necessary behavior (although often quite primitive), attempts to simulate, formalize this process, deeper to know the inner world of his employees, look at the task with the eyes of the employee himself are extremely fruitful. >
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