Cultures with a monoactive, polyactive and reactive time relationship
Business cultures in relation to their representatives at the time can be divided into mono-active (monochrome), polyactive (polychronic) and reactive.
The most significant contribution to the study of cultures on this parameter was made by a well-known British specialist in the field of cross-cultural management Richard Lewis. The results of his research are summarized in the book "When Cultures Collide. Managing successfully across cultures (in the United States edition of "Business Cultures in International Business: From Collision to Understanding"), which was published in 1996.
Richard Donald Lewis (born 1930) is an English linguist, consultant on cross-cultural communications, author of the famous book "When Cultures Collide." Managing successfully across cultures & quot ;. Ngo Training Center Richard Lewis Communications organizes courses for senior executives of multinational companies on cross-cultural communications, as well as language courses. Currently, R. Lewis conducts seminars on cross-cultural management for representatives of international corporations, as well as governments of several countries of the world. Among its clients are such large companies and organizations as UBS, Coca-Cola, Dcloittc, Gazprom, Nokia, Unilever and the World Bank.
Mono-active (monochrome) crops
In monochrome cultures, time is the basis for organizing human life, maintaining order in it. It appears as a straightforward path that leads from the past to the future. Human actions are carried out sequentially, one after another during a certain time, which is divided into segments, and in each period of time a person concentrates on any one task. Since in a certain period of time a person belonging to the representatives of a monochronous culture is able to engage in only one activity, he is inclined to immerse himself in his own world, for which there is no access for others. Forced interruptions and interruption of its operation are perceived as annoying interference.
Its time can be planned. For representatives of monochronous cultures, the attitude towards time as a cost resource is characteristic: time can be spent, saved, made up for, lost.
Representatives of mono-active cultures view their activities as a succession of stages that need to be performed without distracting themselves from other activities. Violation of the work schedule can be perceived as the inability of an individual or a working group to cope with their duties, in some cases - as a sign of unprofessionalism. At each moment, only one activity is performed.
Thus, for representatives of mono-active (monochronic) cultures, which include Switzerland, Scandinavian countries, England, Germany, the United States, Canada and several others, an important psychological setting in business is consistency and focus on one thing at a given moment in time . Any project is carefully planned and analyzed, broken down into stages, each of which is comprehensively studied before managers move on to another. As a result, balanced and strong management decisions are taken into account, taking into account various variants of the development of events. Representatives of these cultures usually expect the same approach to projects from their partners.
In countries with a mono-active culture, accuracy and punctuality are highly valued, these qualities are regarded as a virtue and mandatory attribute of a serious businessman. Simultaneous occupation of several issues is regarded as an inability to self-organization, the manifestation of proper business qualities. When holding negotiations and at business meetings, restraint is welcomed in the manifestation of emotions, weighted words and expressions, the validity of conclusions and proposals built on flawless logic.
As a rule, representatives of monochronous cultures are very punctual, non-observance of agreements on the time of meetings is considered as a violation of norms and rules. Violation of the schedule of work and meetings is possible only under circumstances that could not be foreseen.
In cultures of a monoactive type, clear and specific information is highly valued. Representatives of this type of culture are not inclined to extensive discussion of cases, being distracted by abstract topics.
A clear division of the professional and personal spheres of life is a characteristic feature of representatives of monochronous cultures. Establishing trust relationships with colleagues is a secondary task, giving way to the goals of achieving the results of activities. Orientation at work - raising incomes and career growth.
The principle of equality plays an important role in a monoactive society. All people have equal opportunities. Teamwork is built on the principle of equality of team members, initiatives are welcomed. Each member of the team has the right to make independent decisions.
In cultures of a monochronous type, it is customary to clearly protect private space, not allowing strangers to enter it.Thus, representatives of mono-active cultures are largely focused on their work, strive to comply with the agreements reached, are more responsible for the results of their work, show great respect for other people and their employment, punctual, support mainly short-term relationships with others people.
Summarizing the above, we can say the following.
For representatives of monoactive cultures are peculiar:
- consistency and concentration on one case at each given moment of time;
- accuracy and punctuality.
This means that representatives of a monoactive culture:
- carefully plan the future;
- do not do several things at once;
- break projects into stages;
- strictly follow the plan;
- emotionally restrained (limited gesticulation in the dispute), rely on logic, rarely interrupt.
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