Abstract -Software development is a team work. Research has shown that a quantity of assignments have been failed in software industry anticipated to cost and schedule overruns. Among the major known reasons for the project inability is poor performance of software team. There are a variety of factors that would have an effect on team performance such as incorrect structure of software team, environment in which software team perform its activities and team leaders that are accountable for team management. With this research paper, we have conducted a books survey to identify various factors which may have direct or indirect effect on software team performance. And discuss which of the factors should be considered in order to generate effective software team and enhance the team performance.
Keywords: Software Team; Software Team Performance; Factors Effecting Team Performance, Team work
Software Task Management (SPM) can be an important part of software development process. It's been observed that poor management would result in project failure. Software industry has been watching improve SPM activities to make software jobs successful. Software engineering can be an interdisciplinary field. There is a dependence on software job management as software engineering is subject to organizational budget and program constraint . Software project management deals with activities like task planning, scheduling, risk management, people management, software cost estimation and quality management.
Software development is a team work, to be able to make a high quality software product, development team takes on a vital role . When team members contribute effectively and continue to be enthusiastic during development process would cause high quality and efficiency results. Team management is beyond the engineering and task management field and lies into the domain name of sociology as it deals with people issues. However, little attention has been paid to create a highly effective software team. Since software product quality is very much indeed reliant on the development team. If associates contribute effectively and continue to be enthusiastic during development process can produce high quality software product. John S. Reel features critical success factors for software assignments. Some of these are creating a right team, providing such an environment where they perform well and maintain their momentum . Effective team building is a elaborate task. Techie as well as delicate skills of associates should be considered while building software team . Therefore building effective team is one of the main factors that contribute to the success of software jobs. Section II offers a literature study, Section III provides Dialogue and Section IV provides summary.
A huge amount of research has been made on effective team creation by conducting several case studies on Software Engineering (SE) students. As an effective software team would have the ability perform well and produce greater results. From literature review, we come to know that different strategies are proposed to develop software team and identify the factors that will software team should display in order to offer high performance.
Tracy L. Lewis is convinced that one of the reason why for the indegent performance by software team is usually that the teams aren't build using the relevant and salient requirements. Matching to them key selection criteria for team creation is still forgotten by SE literature. The better conditions to develop software team are to check the problem solving preferences of associates and numerical dominance of problem resolving style . They conducted a research study where they follow two ways of build software team, one having diverse personalities and other having non diverse personalities. They figured team variety have an optimistic effect on team performance if it might be considered at deeper level not at surface level as this process would contribute in increasing imagination, innovation and flexibility among team members. They are also on contrary to the results of other research work that dominance of problem handling style relates to negative impact on team performance.
Narasimhaiah Gorla and Yan Wah Lam; are of the view point that personality type evaluation is an improved criteria to create an effective software team. They conducted a study in which they identify the characteristics that are essential for the software team members to be able to execute well. They explain these characteristics using the criteria of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for different team member such as task mangers, team market leaders, system analyst and developers. They are also and only team diversity. Corresponding to them it is more desirable that there would be heterogeneity among team leader and associates. But they are not in favor of heterogeneity among associates as there perspective is the fact that it s unneeded to obtain diverse personalities among team members due to fact that people needs to perform multiple job during SDLC and heterogeneity is bad for all stages .
Effective job design also play an important role in improving team performance. Relating to Mohammad M. Tanabian, by applying job design techniques in software anatomist we are able to develop a highly effective software team. His motive is that by "making small changes we create big dissimilarities" . He identify lots of factors which should considered to be able improve job for much healthier and competitive associates. In his paper, he advised some small changes which have positive impact on team performance. His focus on the effective job design for early stage software start up that is corporation should provide such an environment to its employees so that they feel secure, remain stimulated and influence on their job. This might bring about effective software team.
In order to improve software team performance Wolfgan, Thomas has suggested an approach to use a questionnaire based on skill and personality features for providing feedback to the software team during working projects. They suggested that using that questionnaire centered technique we are able to improve team performance by assigning right job to right person . While using the results of questionnaire, it is much easier to identify the conflicts among team members, provide a better knowledge of teammate's marriage and attitudes. This process is a shortcut to develop a powerful for coming tasks by examining team member's capabilities based on previous job experience.
Gerard M. Blair gives an idea to improve the software team performance by building a quality in software team. He define quality in conditions of customer that something regarding satisfying customer goals . Relating to him, software team leader is responsible for increasing team performance as quality must become a behavior and training would be asked to build behaviors. He advised some strategies that team head should follow in order to build quality in a team. He also recommended that in order to boost team performance, company should provide an environment in which team members can freely exhibit their ideas and work should be done with mutual coordination. Considering these factors would reduce communication spaces and conflict among associates.
Team performance is greatly afflicted by the team structure. Heng-Li Yang, Jih-Hsin Tang, in their article defines a romantic relationship between team framework and team performance through sociable network perspective. They discovered that cohesion has positive impact on team performance and team framework is an essential aspect once and for all performance . They describes that how cohesion and conflicts among team members fluctuate in various phases of information system development process. To be able to evaluate software team performance they explain cohesion and centrality as predicator. They also used a questionnaire structured approach to measure the teammate discussion. They concluded that centrality has positive impact on team performance as an integral person having domain name knowledge pays to for smooth improvement but is ideal for simple task. .
Building a higher performance team is on of the main element challenge in software industry. As there is a big difference between practical group and team. Ken P. Walsh describes that significant amount of work is required to create a team at first illustration . His perspective is that most of the experts are proposing ways of build powerful software groups and figuring out the factors that influence team performance. Matching to him, the first step to generate effective software team is to convert efficient groups into high performance team. He suggested a technique to convert an organization into a team by following these five steps; drive out the team misconception, choose right person, ensure that success is on the way, Add account, and recognizes associates efforts.
Another essential aspect that needs to be considered in order to boost team performance is to develop trust among team members. Team market leaders and Team professionals are responsible to build up trust among associates. Research has shown that insufficient trust among associates causes a number of problems like communication breakdown, increasing work insert, conflicts among associates, low feedback, poor quality of wok which in turn results in insufficient desire and poor team performance [2 ].
Software development require team work that can be done effectively if team structure would be adaptable and provide an equal opportunity of participation to all associates. One way to improve team involvement team work skills is by assigning roles to the different team members. Robert lingard identify some potential factors that would affect software team performance. These factors include era, gender, past work experience and amount of specific team member participation [ 11].
Disruption in software team badly influences software team performance. To be able to build effective software team personality account is an important factor, that needs to be consider so that one can s\easily regulate how well team will work and reach to the issue. Relating to J. S. Karn, team dogged buy disruption have significantly more serious problems during system development. A great many other factors are highlighted by researchers that affect team performance like individual associates often hesitate to talk about their idea's or there's a lack of communication among team mates[ 6].
Communication among team members is vital. As effective communication fix conflicts and associates can show their progressive ideas with one another. Lack of debate and destructive question would cause serious problems. For effective team work, team members must organize their work with each other at length [ 14].
one of the most frequently used method of improve software team performance is by giving tool support to the development team. Different traditional tools can be found that help job mangers to perform their process. Donna Dufner suggested a web based tool PMA, that might be design to facilitate project mangers to execute various activities and also helps in decision making. PMA provide notifications and suggest corrective actions in order to continue easy development of software tasks. Tool support for software tasks would greatly influence team performance, such an instrument has been developed as an expert system and helpful in analyzing less composition decisions .
Shirley D. Brennen analyze the research work done in U. K for last three years in order to determine best suited team framework and factors influencing team and representing them using a model. A case study has been done in order to look for the effectiveness of this model known as Integrated Performance Modeling Environment (IPME). The concept behind this approach is to identify the factors that affect software team performance from literature study, operationalize these principles in a behavioral terms. They are really of the point of view that although research has been made in order to recognize factors impacting software team performance, but exploration of the idea produce quantitative result is very limited. There's a need to symbolize these ideas in operational conditions to generate quantitative outputs .
From the literature survey, we have observed that we now have quantity of factors that would influence software team performance. We should consider all these factors in order to develop a higher performance team. Most important factors that are recognized by different research workers are personality attributes for individual associates, communication, conflicts, jobs and tasks, trust, working environment, early on job design, disruption, motivation problem solving style and team variety. There are some other factors that partly affect software team performance like associates feedback and tool support for software team.
For last few decays software industry is attending to towards bettering team performance as they have realized the importance of team work while developing a quality software product. Team work greatly impact the success and quality of software tasks. Therefore, there is a need to make effective software team that could donate to the success of software assignments.
According to the analysts [ 1, 2, 6, 7, 14], one of the most important factor that have a huge impact on the performance of software team is communication. When there is a good communication among team mates, they can certainly understand each other problems, resolve their issues and convey their idea's. However, lack of communication would cause a number of issues that would cause a poor team performance.
Personality type analysis is also a way to improve software team performance. There are a variety of characteristics that every specific team member should show to work in a team. While developing a software team, these characteristics is highly recommended, as there's a difference between a functional group and software clubs .
In a team work specific effort can not contribute enough to boost team performance, unless all the team members would get involved equivalently. Therefore building a highly effective team that can succeed, personality type research is an important aspect, as every individual role should displays certain characteristics, like project team leader should have leadership potential, motivate his/her associates, build trust included in this, able to resolve conflicts among team members, transparent and have decisions making potential.
There are a great many other factors that are also considered in personality type evaluation like years, gender, cultural variety, stress management, development and problem resolving style.
Assigning assignments and responsibilities to the team members in an effective may also add in team performance. Assigning right job to a right person is a hard decision that would in turn impact team performance. Project of assignments and duties not only clarify the work every individual team member, but also develop a sense of participation in all individual team members. As, it's very important that team member should get involved equivalently in the software task development.
Conflict among team members adversely impact software team performance. Because of the conflict one of the team members there is a lack of discussion among them that could bring about to a communication distance. Among the major known reasons for the conflict among the program team is insufficient trust and disruptive nature of individual. There is a common misunderstanding that team diversity would cause discord among associates, but research has shown that team diversity have positive impact on team performance in many case studies. Heterogeneity among associates does not impact team performance, when there is no communication gap among team members.
In order to build a high performance team corporation not only considers the complex skill of people but also ingest to account very soft skills that could contribute a great deal in team performance. Working environment, also plat a vital role in enhancing the software team capabilities. Early job design can be an approach that could design this environment for the software team in order to perform well and excel themselves. In early on job design, by causing little changes business can stimulate its team. As through the early stages of development work fill is usually high, that would lead to building stress on team members, organization should choose such strategies that could reduce work insert and stress among team members so that they would be able to work in an efficient manner.
As mention previous there are few factors that work as a supplement in order to boost software team performance. These factors include reviews and tool support. By getting reviews from the software team members, provides an opportunity to the business to analyze the issues that team would experienced during project development. This is one way, organization can identify the issues that would have an impact on software team performance and ingest to account these issues while creating a software team for future assignments.
CASE tool support improves software team performance by providing aid to the program team during development process.
Based on the literature survey findings, we've concluded that, without doubt software team plays a vital role in software projects which is one of the main element factors that have an effect on quality and success of software assignments. So, there is a need to build effective software team and providing such an environment so that team members could perform well.
The most prominent factor that greatly influences software team performance is communication. It has been observed by conducting various instances studies on software groups, that team having effective communication among team members is more successful. Communication distance among team would lead to to lots of several other problems.
Another very essential aspect that business must focus is that build effective team by doing personality type evaluation. All the factors influencing software team performance are interrelated. Lack of one factor many cause other factor to increase or decrease, i. e. insufficient leadership decreases desire and increase discord among team members.
Therefore, factors influencing software team performance would not be considered in isolation as these factors impact one another. Research should be done in order to find the ways through which an organization should be able to improve software team performance, as it immediately impact software output. It really is a need of hour, to develop software teams in such away that they would be able to contribute in achievement of software assignments. Since there is a tendency of Global Software Development in which clubs located at different sites interact in collaboration . There is certainly heterogeneity within and among the list of groups. It's really a big challenge for job mangers to keep up communication and drive among clubs.
Another very interesting point that we find during books survey is the fact team diversity have positive effect on software team performance. As it is a good approach, a team has multi gifted minds plus they solve the situation in many various ways.
A whole lot of research work is necessary in this field, as that dimension of software job management in software anatomist is still overlooked by almost all of the organization. Tasks should be given to the students of software anatomist in order that they would experience how to work as a team and understand importance of software team.
We are prefer to thank our respected professor Ms. Salma Imtiaz for encouraging us to perform this activity during our course work and guiding us to work in a right direction by providing responses. This research activity wouldn't normally be possible without her support.
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