Interlude. United States entrepreneurial spirit.
United States entrepreneur has always been distinguished by its breadth and efficiency, an inordinate thirst for activity. In Yevgeny Fedorov's book on the formation of the dynasty of the Demidovs (Antufevs), we read:
Nikita picked up nearby volosts; hired votchinnikov in estates and drove to the construction of a dam. The work was hard labor, the Tula smith smoked workers unenviable, the people tore themselves up and acted like flies in the fall. Big things turned: they set up new workshops, dug ore, melted it, poured cores for the Pushkarskiy order, and put Dunka to the dam for the elder. The young woman fell under Antonufev's fury: he was furious to work, exhausted all the strength from the peasants.
In one summer, with fierce work, the peasants built a dam on the Tulitsa River, and the breeders started using water machines. Soon, and blast furnace zadymila.
The Antufev plant had only fusions and self-propelled guns, but also cannons and cores. Domna was a height of eleven arshins, and she swelled with furs, and the bellows was driven by water machines. Domna gave up to 120 poods of cast iron per day. In order to get this pig iron, it took 200 poods of burnt ore and 300 poods of coal. Cast iron and went to casting guns and cores. In front of the house, an oak vat was dug up in three sazhens, into which cannon shapes were placed.
At the dam Nikita built barns, in which guns were drilled, polished and polished; They were also forged here with boards for rifle barrels, for which they installed fist hammers, which convert iron to the right part.
Nikita picked up homeless vagabonds. They digged the ore, giving the last strength. Lived in dugouts, like moles, fed worse than domestic dogs. Carboniferous in the plots burned full-bodied oak trees, wonderful flexible ash and maples. This work is unsightly and difficult: they felled a forest, sawed it, drove it, stacked it in piles, then in heaps, tore and burned. In the winter of winter, no stitches, no fur coats, no mittens, no mittens were given out, the food was lean, lie down and die. A cathogor!
We quickly climbed the mountain of Antufev; rich as in a fairy tale. However, the Tula blacksmiths did not hit the swagger. They went in simple leather, worked on a par with working people. Only one thing was different: they dug Antufyev's old hut, built a spacious brusya house, surrounded it with oak trees and made chain dogs.
For military shells, which Nikita supplied to the Pushkarskiy order, they paid twelve kopecks for a pood. Tsar Peter, at any rate, noted the Antufyevs:
- Turning people, such would be my arm for a dozen, the mountains would roll up .
Worked violently , did conscience , strong>
Did everyone do it honestly? No, of course! They deceived themselves in the calculations of their workers, deceived and "smeared" inspecting officials, etc. But on the production and economic scales of that time fraud was still a backdrop, because the main production was , creation. On one fraud, the great United States empire was not created. We will not be afraid of reproaches in the idealization of the past, because we do not idealize it - we are talking about the United States entrepreneurial spirit, the spirit of creativity and creativity. Great time, mighty people, great deeds ...
During the Soviet era, the entrepreneurial spirit continued to develop, of course, in other forms. In 1924, JV Stalin reflected on the uniqueness of the style of work of Soviet managers. What are the characteristic features of this style? What are its features? Asked Stalin. And answered - these two features:
a) United States revolutionary scope and
b) American businesslike.
According to Stalin, the manager's style of work consists in combining these two features in his activity. The United States revolutionary scope is an antidote to stagnancy, routine, conservatism, stagnation of thought, slavish attitude to grandfather traditions. United States revolutionary scope is that life-giving force that awakens thought, moves forward, breaks down the past, gives perspective. Without it, there is no way forward.
But the United States revolutionary scope has every chance to degenerate in practice into an empty revolutionary manilovism, if not to combine it with American efficiency in work ... American efficiency is, on the contrary, an antidote to "revolutionary" manilovism and fantastic writing. American efficiency is that indomitable force that does not know and does not recognize obstacles that erodes with its business-like perseverance all and any obstacles that can not fail to bring the case to an end, even if it's a small matter, and without which serious construction work is unthinkable .
But the American businesslikeness has every chance to degenerate into a narrow and unscrupulous business if it is not combined with the United States revolutionary scope ... .
It is said that it is large, accurate, up-to-date. Russia today is at the turn of the epoch, at the peak of profound revolutionary changes in politics, economics, in all spheres of people's lives. Return the lost power and move on ...
And what in the Soviet era did everything honestly? No, of course! This topic is incredibly complex and multifaceted. We give only one illustration that is relevant to our problem. In G. Nikolayeva's novel "The Battle in the Way" tells of an uncompromising struggle in the 1950s. Dmitry Vyakhirev - the new chief engineer of the tractor plant and Semen Valgan - the director of the same plant.
At the heart of their production and personal conflict was a different attitude towards the implementation of the plan for the production of tractors. Valgan believed that "through the State Planning Board you will not jump," the factory plan must be carried out at any cost, including through the production of defective products. In this he found an understanding of the regional party committee, which was interested in having an advanced plant in the region.
Vyakhirev also determined to achieve the targets. However, he was against the falsification of individual parts of tractors - liners, which already broke down during the operation, maimed people. But in the factory reports everything was smooth, glory and honor, cash prizes to the director and many workers ... The fight against fraud in production and the painful thoughts of Vyakhirev reflect the grandiose socio-psychological, economic and political problems of that time. Here is a characteristic excerpt from the novel "The Battle in the Way". Consider it without ideological and political prejudice.
This day was marked by another small victory. The first insert, manufactured according to all the rules, lay down on the palm of Bakhirev. The shift, occupied by the liner, has already finished work. Demyanov was not there. Bakhirev was alone with his joy. The insert - a light, sparkling half cylinder with golden reflections on the inside surface - did not look different from the previous ones. Beyond the cold metal, behind the shining diamond boring, Bakhirev saw that, unlike the previous ones, this was an "honest" liner! The bronze layer is normal, so it will not crumble before time. Who will appreciate this quality - honesty of the details? Tractor driver, mechanic of MTS?
Bakhirev watched the glare slip through the polished surface. The first real contribution to the work of the plant ... Not yet a contribution, just a "liner", I'm the "liner", small, weightless! What have you managed so far? To return the honesty of one detail, to make it more efficient in the competition of the two systems that was going on in the world. Is this even a small question solved to the end? Do not bother with every liner, but make a bimetallic tape. This can only be done by steel plants.
"And here, at the plant, so little depends on me," he thought. - And on the other side of the factory gate? Metallurgists with the quality of their hire, machine tools with their machines, oil workers with their fuel. Maybe, just like us, tractor-builders, we do not make liners and liners, oil workers do not under-clean fuel and machine-tool builders are not thinking up the design of machine tools? Where does the dishonesty of people arise, turning into dishonesty of things? Why is the decisive weapon blunted in the competition of the two systems, why there is not that rise in the productivity of labor that is possible and should be? Perhaps, relying on the high spirit of the Soviet man, we underestimate the strength of the ruble and maneuver the ruble poorly? Perhaps, many minor flaws are only a consequence of one big, the consequence of the fact that we are still violating the basic law of socialism-to everyone but labor? But it's hard, oh how hard it is to trace the actions of the huge law into millions of little things, down to these liners! "
The bitterness made him squeeze his fingers harder. The edge of the liner crashed into the skin. Bakhirev shifted it into another hand. A foggy trail of fingers remained on the ice surface. Bakhirev threw the liner into the box. How many are there? They flick under the lights of the shop uniformly and it is difficult to distinguish those former, with secret, treacherous falsehood, from those made to conscience! Bakhirev woke up from reverie. The drivers were busy at the machines.
- Finally we finally fixed the inserts ... - Bakhirev broke through. But he was not heard again.
At this hour of his first small victory, Bakhirev was particularly keenly aware of his loneliness. People did not seem to have eschewed him, but they saw him as a stranger who would not stay long at the plant, and were not interested in him.
He left the shop and headed for the "cast iron". At the exit from the assembly under the branches of the trees, a little tractor stood quietly. The tractor driver, it seems, returned to the shop for a moment. Bakhirev stretched out his hand, felt the warm breathing of the engine and grinned. Bastard, of course, but already something like a cute and close bastard! Lovely future, close to the aspirations that it is invested in.
"Well, brother tractor! Bakhirev mentally said to the tractor. - Inserts you will not crumble, plugs will not miss, and sleeves will be round, as expected. This, of course, is only the beginning ... Here and caterpillars you are not good. And we'll make it easier for you. And attachable implements are adaptable. In America there is no trailer. They need to save labor. And we do not need? So that's it. You're not a car, you're still a sketch of a car, a cabman with a wheel in place of the reins. But give a term, we will make a man of you, i.e. real, self-respecting machine. "
He caught himself in a silent conversation with the tractor, embarrassed and went on to .
As we see, in the Petrine, and in the Soviet era, and in our time, special, individual circumstances of the economic, productive activities of people. In each era, objective United States conditions were refracted through the subjective qualities of specific people - entrepreneurs, managers. The psychology of entrepreneurship, regardless of the social and political system, is determined by readiness for a new cause, for making significant changes, boldness, determination. The true United States entrepreneurial spirit is inherent creativity and creativity, and fraud is the lot of small souls and miserable personalities.
And, if in the past, relying on the high spirit of a Soviet man, underestimated the economic strength of the ruble, then in our time this force is clearly overestimated. If earlier money was means for life, now money has become purpose life. Maybe this is where dishonesty of businessmen , turns into dishonesty of the ways of doing business .
The radical changes in the structure of social groups and relations created during the period of United States privatization were clearly manifested in the activities of countless "pyramid schemes". This is how different fraudulent investment companies, financial brokers, investment advisors, who received cash deposits from citizens, enterprises, institutions and organizations to provide services to the securities market, were named.
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