Internationalization Readiness Article Review Management Essay

Purpose of the review is to look at approach of different research workers to export (international) readiness of the businesses. The review emphasizes on pre internationalization tendencies of the companies, indices to assess their internationalization readiness, stimuli s to visit for internationalization, the latest models of to explain internationalization process, inside and external factors impacting on internationalization of the firms and managerial behaviour of the companies toward internationalization process.

The articles got various format like research documents, performance reviews, business reviews and circumstance studies. This article review can become starting point for even more studies into internationalization, development of more correct internationalization readiness indices


What happens in pre internationalization of the firms is point of concern for many studies. The studies usually concentrate on stimuli s for internationalization process. Insufficient tests done pre export condition of the companies who are internationalized. They addresses managements' conception of export stimuli, attitude of management to look international, firm's resources and features, learning process in internationalization. The factors collectively help on development of internationalization readiness index. The internationalization process is staged, so it is vital to study the pre internationalization level to comprehend later levels in internationalization process. The pre internationalization is important because the study from it shows where in fact the internationalization is originated. (Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

The Uppsala model explaining internationalization of the firms only looks at process from one angle of experiential knowledge which makes the model too simple for research of the internationalization process. In the course of the newspaper the Uppsala model is enhanced to check out pre internationalization of process and finally the export readiness is developed.

Several internationalization models targeted at study of export readiness place focus on learning, source allocation and decision-making as three main the different parts of the export readiness. The experiential knowledge has been put into the model. The models are development and experiential model are models describing the internationalization process as series of incremental decisions and commitments. The theories explaining staged procedure for internationalization see the process as interplay between knowledge acquisition and market dedication. (P. W. & J. L, 1995)

In the advancement model, firms advance in different learning levels. Thorough the periods their foreign dedication increases plus they evolve from disinterested exporter to experimental exporter, then to productive exporter and finally to dedicated exporter. The Uppsala model describes development of the businesses from point out of knowledge about foreign market to convey of committing resources to international market segments. The internationalization of the firm in Uppsala model has match between its experiential knowledge in foreign market and its own resources. One of the tips the models want for are timing for commencement of internationalization process. In both creativity model and Uppsala model organizations proceed through pre internationalization stage, and change from one state to another. Pursuing diagram not only show the internationalization procedure for the firms but also focus on on pre internationalization of the firms. (Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

(Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

The stimuli s for commencement of internationalization process in technology and Uppsala model is vulnerability of decisions creators to relevant international information. The model suggested by experts who look at stimuli s like motives and bonuses which evokes internationalization process. Predicated on the model suggested by them the stimuli is very important for participation and press of company to internationalization process. The stimuli are essential however, not enough for internationalization of the businesses. They look at uniqueness of the merchandise because of its exportability and assists are good stimuli for internationalization. So mother nature of the businesses' products is very important as measure of its export readiness. (P. W. & J. L, 1995)

Presence of interested and experienced managers in the company is good stimuli for internationalization process. It really is believed the info provided to the firm management is vital to carry on with internationalization process, the information enough and useable. (D. Jaffe & Pasternak, 1994)

Below is the stimuli s for internationalization process as it was grouped to 2 categories of internal and exterior,

(Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

Attitudinal/internal commitment

In the export readiness measurement models commitments are very important in both change and point out aspect of the model. The dedication according to the models can be defined on two levels is organizational where sources of the business is focused on international and export activities, the other is on personal level where managers and staff make enough sacrifices to utilize new methods they are not sure of. Within the models organization is subjected to information stimuli, the stimuli causes further engagement of the company in internationalization process, but what still remains important is attitudinal and subconscious commitment of professionals to internationalization process. (Ortiz-Buonafina, 1991)

Such personal commitment pushes the managers to think about hazards and opportunities which might can be found in international market and come up with strategy to go into international market. Companies' willingness to commit resources to overseas market is influenced by resource features of the businesses. The firm's resources are related to role of decision machine in international level and learning process in the business. The companies' determination to commit resources to international markets is mentioned in so many frameworks. The resources take several varieties of tangible and intangibles, financial, recruiting and technological. So firm's determination and markets knowledge are very important in internationalization process. Your choice maker's capability to make internationalization decisions are influenced naturally of tangible and in tangible resources of the company, individual related aspects like skills of the personnel, knowledge of international market, companies ' product characteristics and quality, R&D capabilities, financial resources and technology level in both small and large businesses. (Reid, 1982)

The studies also show the stimuli for internationalization process is not enough. The information is vital component of group learning process. Firm's ability to get the stimuli s and react to them is named lateral rigidity. Many believe, lateral rigidity is common in every decision process including internationalization process. The lateral rigidity results in purification of information received by the company and risk avoidance. The lateral rigidity clarifies why the information received by some professionals in the business is not found in internationalization process. (V. Stanton & J. Burkink, 2008)

Internationalization readiness of the organization is the state where company is going to change from strictly active in home market to become active in international area. The examination of internationalization readiness includes review of pre internationalization period of the organization, information fed to the management, internationalization stimuli s, organizational and psychological commitment of the companies. In measurement of internationalization readiness some companies are delivered global which go international quite quickly, some companies have started domestically and slowly but surely go for internationalization. In domestically lively firms usually the learning process is slower that born global businesses. (Beamish & C. , 2003)

Measuring internationalization readiness

Internationalization readiness of the company shows propensity of the organization going for international and export activities. The propensity for internationalization is made in pre internationalization of the company through experiential learning. To acquire solution able index of internationalization readiness of the companies, many models prescribe review of pre internationalization tendencies of the firms. The view of the business in pre internationalization process, provides good insight for the professionals to see if they are ready to develop market penetration and market development on international level. The insight to pre internationalization stage of the business helps the managers to choose proper strategy to enter international markets. By measure of international readiness companies will understand their level of preparedness for international dedication. (Ortiz-Buonafina, 1991)

The development of internationalization readiness index of the company can put in one of below four quadrants;

(Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

(Tan, Brewer, & W. Liesch, 2007)

Firm's characteristics and supporting export development programs by federal impacts the internationalization of the companies. There are lots of important elements of the strategy which helps the small firm's activities in international resource chains. Meeting authorities and customer's expectation is pivotal in development of successful internationalization strategy. The successful link between providers and importers is vital for development of international strategy. The rules of the international business are changing constantly. One such rule is change from global trend of the clients to consume highly differentiated products than standardized mass products. (Gomez & Schwentesius, 2002)

It is discovered by many experts that, export products can be purchased through centralized stores like hyper markets rather than dispersed retailers like before. Prices of the goods especially for fresh produce are no more se in wide open market, nevertheless they are occur long term contracts between importers and providers. The studies show producers in growing countries have more tendencies to take part in coordinated supply chains. Coordination of supply chain especially for newly produced products, ends in sizeable reduction of export transaction costs. Coordinated resource chains allow the producers to offer competitive prices at international level. Proper internationalization strategy embodies risk decrease, reduction of transfer costs and synergy among different people of the resource chain. The problems involved proper internationalization strategies act like proper coordination of home supply chains. Obstacles to proper internationalization regarding export opportunities are insufficient economies of level, inadequate travel means, variance in production size and quality, reliable legal system for assortment of the money and failure to provide products as differentiated as requested by the marketplace. (V. Stanton & J. Burkink, 2008)

Below are the points elevated by the in various export related literature for successful internationalization process,

Provision of resource requirements

Production of even looking products for export

Having proper travel for the products

Conformity with buyer preferences

Regular communication with buyer for provision of necessary changes

Having single standard point of contact for band of producers

Help provided by trade commissions

Concerns of the clients in international markets from companies are;

Meeting requirements of administration and last customers in the target market

Following changes in last customers preference trends

Reduction of the potential risks in the eye of buyers

Maintenance of sanitary requirements (Beamish & C. , 2003)

The international marketing channels have grown to be quite different in light of new free trade agreements. These changes have lead to opportunities in global market. The tiny scale makers are benefitting from these new opportunities and can separate the skills and resources to meet differentiated tastes of the customers. Export habit of the firms is very important to many researchers owned by different trade universities of thought. The studies try to describe export performance of successful companies. Success of the companies is correlated to many factors like organizational characteristics, tool factors and management targets. The correlation is effective in design and execution of successful international marketing strategies. But difference in definition of top export performance may cause some confusion. (Williamson, 1981)

Great load of studies has been focused on pre export patterns of the organizations and what motivates these to go for internationalization and respective decision making process. Significant reasons in pre export stage of companies to look for internationalizations are exploitation of differential advantages, profit opportunity, expansion through market growth, excess source to demand in local market, competitive stresses in domestic market and domestic sales decrease. The exporters can take both extreme and passive approaches to export and internationalization functions. (D. Jaffe & Pasternak, 1994)

Some colleges of thought take a look at internationalization process as quite incremental. In other words the internationalization of the firms is made up of group of incremental, consecutive decisions where export participation of firm slowly but surely increases. From this point of view attention evoking factors motivate the company to internationalization, then the companies goes through learning curve and hopefully grows to the its goals. (P. W. & J. L, 1995)

Other analysts have focused on constraining factors to export decisions. These constraining factors deter many companies from going international. These deterrents include lack of understanding of international markets, ethnic difference between local and international market, and notion of risk in new environment, trade barriers and competition in international level. The studies on deterrents of export process usually suffer from some limitations. The studies usually look for only up to three years of export activities of businesses to guage their performance also the studies does not monitor growth of the firms as they increase in the internationalization process. (Williamson, 1981)

Differentiation of companies to 2 wide categories of proactive and reactive in export process is plainly shown in their strategies. Therefore the expert systems for the export marketplaces can be utilized as both diagnostic and selection tool, where use of learning experience along the way. Firms must have differential edge to remain competitive internationally and this differential advantages should be well identified by managers. The exterior factors impacting on the internationalization process are foreign-market potential, foreign-market opportunity and expected government assistance, connect to perceived competitive edge. The proactive parameters affecting export process are immediately connected to export motive of the company managers. Insufficient knowledge in export marketplaces seriously influences the motive of the managers to go international. Export facilitating companies provides such information to managers and also help them increase their export readiness. The help of export facilitating companies and administration agencies differs for reactive and expert dynamic exporting companies, based on needs of already exporting and none exporting companies. Failed encounters of the companies in export markets result in severe reluctance to go for export again. The reluctance contributes to lesser resources focused on international activities. (Ortiz-Buonafina, 1991)


The starting point for heading international is very important for competitiveness of many small and large companies. The supervisor wants to learn where they are simply stepping, which kind of competition they may be facing and exactly how tense the competition is going to be. The really want to know very well what amount of sales they can expect from the international market. So it is needless to say measuring internationalization readiness of the firms is vital to many professionals and researchers. The correct internationalization readiness will mean;

Managers and their corporation is committed to internationalization process

International target market segments are properly identified and evaluated

Market entrance strategies are appraised and selected

Proper plans are developed and going to be implemented

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