Managing motivation and stimulating work behavior
As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:
• the content of the main theories of motivation for labor behavior;
• means of influence on motivation and their components;
• labor incentive functions;
be able to
• Identify and justify the components of staff motivation;
• form the principles and functions of motivation;
• classify incentives for work behavior;
• The conceptual apparatus in the field of motivation and stimulation of labor behavior;
• Staff motivation tools;
• factors that increase or decrease the motivation of the staff.
Basic concepts and theories of staff motivation
The essence of motivation of labor activity
Any modern top manager realizes that the success of an organization directly depends on the development, implementation and application of an effective system of staff motivation.
Ensuring the appropriate level of motivation allows to increase the effectiveness of each employee's work and the efficiency of the whole production, ensure the systematic growth of the skills of the personnel, and the stabilization of the collective.
Motivation is an external impact on a person's work behavior for achieving personal, group and social goals. When choosing the forms and methods of motivation, it is necessary to take into account the motives of people, i.e. motivations that cause one or another of their actions.
Motive is a means by which an employee, in a given situation, explains and justifies his behavior. Motives are quite mobile. Often they are formed under the influence of the employee's emotions, his temperament, several motives, or motivational core.
The motivational core is the aggregate of the leading motives that guide the worker in a certain period of time in his work behavior.
The structure of the motivational nucleus is different and depends on specific labor situations. The most common situations are the work situations presented in Fig. 6.1.
Fig. 6.1. Situations that determine the structure of the motivational nucleus
The leading place in the above classification of labor situations is the daily work behavior. It is characterized by the following motivational nucleus (Figure 6.2).
Fig. 6.2. Motivational core of labor behaviorIt is also important to clearly imagine that motivation is a process of conscious choice by a person of one or another type of behavior determined by the complex effect of external (stimuli) and internal (motive) factors (Figure 6.3).
Fig. 6.3. The process of motivating staff
An employee motivates his behavior by letting external factors through the prism of his consciousness. Ultimately, it is only through the system of motivation that it is included in a certain context of social reality. Thus, motivation is a borderline manifestation of the structure of the personality, acting or behaving in a certain way always at the intersection of subjective (outgoing from within) forces and objective (influencing from outside) factors. The process of motivation is transformed in the actions and actions of the individual, which objectifies, reveals its own plans and decisions outside.
The behavior of an employee in the world of work moves from general attitudes to a specific motivated choice of the sphere of activity, meaningfully and structurally, he passes through a series of stages, each of which forms certain qualities of the individual.
The interaction between individuals is based on the realization of people's needs.
Needs - is a defect in something objectively necessary to maintain the vital activity and development of the body, personality.
There are many classifications of human needs, the basis of which are: a specific object (subject) of human needs, their functional purpose, the type of activity being realized, etc.
Motivation of labor activity has specific motivational and labor values, among them there are four main groups: 1) the need for the meaningfulness of labor - the need for an interesting, from the perspective of the employee, work; in the realization of their knowledge, abilities, abilities and skills; in independence, ie. opportunities to choose what to do and how; in improving professional skills; 2) the need for the public utility of work - the attitude towards work as to its duty to society; release of useful products for people; output of products that are in demand; 3) the need for work as a source of means of subsistence - the need for earnings adequate to the labor efforts of the employee; need for wealth for your family; needs for satisfaction of social and domestic needs, which can be provided by the enterprise (housing, sanatorium treatment, etc.); 4) the status requirements related to the position of the employee in the primary group and the work collective as a whole - the need for communication, respect and service growth.
Requirements as the motive force of the motivation process of labor activity are characterized by the following basic properties: modality (what exactly is the need), strength (the degree of need for tension), acuity (subjective perception and subjective assessment of the degree of dissatisfaction or completeness of satisfaction of demand). >
As any dynamic system needs have a number of features related to the ability of the needs of the individual or group to change over time. Among them: the phenomenon of substitution of need (a kind of interchangeability of demand), the laws of inertia and the exaltation of the need (when the need is satisfied, the latter either continues to be subjectively experienced as actual, or multiplied or intensified), the struggle between the physical and the spiritual in need, the development of need (their change in time due to experience, education, cultural growth and great awareness), etc.