Modes of indirect use of speech - Fundamentals of the theory of communication

Indirect speech modes

Readiness to similarly see the goals of communication and see each other in interrelated subjects is often manifested in actual speech, the subject of which is secondary, as the attention of the interlocutors is focused on each other. That is why phatic speech, as a rule, is indirect - it is based not on recognition, but on guessing the meaning, on "hearing between words". Opportunities of contact in this case opens a lot - from simple to sophisticated, and associate Fatik only with ritual, automated, "empty" speech behavior would be reckless.

Example from the classics

Let's consider the ironic commentary to the common speech practice from the story

Q. Tokareva Boring :

A tedious person is one who, when asked: "How are you?" - begins to tell how his affairs ...

Zhenya was tedious. He understood everything literally. If he sneezed and he was told: "Be healthy", answered: "Okay." If he was invited: "Come in", he stopped by. And when asked: "How are you?", Began to tell in detail how his affairs are.

Lusia and Yura were not considered tedious, they understood everything the way they should be understood: if they were invited - "come in", they promised and did not go. On the wish be healthy answered thank you & quot ;. And the question "how are you?" Sincerely shared: Slowly .

Tediousness Zhenya is conditioned by the fact that he perceives the phenomena of everyday speech too directly, at the level of linguistic meanings, that is, he understands exactly what is said. Speech behavior of Lucy and Jura seems to be the opposite - they understand exactly what is commonly understood, that is, they act diligently in executing social and genre conventions. However, both types of behavior cause the narrator's ironic attitude to him, precisely because of his predictability: for the narrator of the story, as for the author, it is clear that fulfilling the convention-norm and owning it is not one and the same: any norm is ambiguous and leaves the user a lot of freedom, if, of course, he knows how to use this freedom. An individual can not be a "master" speech conventions, it does not install the schemes and usual roles of communication, but it does not condemn us to the "boring" follow the stencil, passive performance.

We respect the clarity, certainty, uniqueness of statements, but we love (often!) uncertainty, uncertainty, ambiguity.

The obstacle to the formation of meaning stimulates work to find it, which gives us the opportunity to show the sharpness and ingenuity that we also assume in the partner. In the game genres of speech (a riddle, a joke), this becomes a dominant and a source of pleasure, as a proof not only of the sharpness of the mind, but of creative ability, and in a sense of vitality in general. An excellent school of inference is artistic speech. It offers the addressee-reader an artificially created obstacle course (from paths, figurative allegories), overcome with greater or less pleasure. At the same time, in the literary situation, we, as addressees, are much more involved in cooperation than in ordinary oral communication: we are more focused, more patient, ready to make more efforts to understand. The writer, accordingly, has more freedom in the sense of deviating from the speech communicative norms and creative play with them.

When talking about the artistic word, one can not help recalling the aesthetic function of communication, which is always present in the speech, but in literary speech receives priority. Explaining this pattern, R. Jakobson tells such an anecdote: a missionary reproaches his flock in one of the African tribes because they walk naked. And how are you yourself? They ask, pointing to the preacher's face. "Are not you naked here and there?" - Yes, but this is the same person & quot ;. "And we have a face everywhere," replied the natives. It can be said that the literary language is totally expressive, like the naked body of a native. In the words of Jacobson, "in poetry, any speech element becomes a figure of poetic speech" , - of course, to the extent of the ability of the addressee (reader) to notice this figure!

Between the impetuosity of deducing an indirect meaning (often cliched), characteristic of everyday communication, and patient creative reading into the literary text, there are many intermediate stages. There is a huge variety of situations that somehow induce us to think about what the partner in communication, which is different from the literal meaning of the said words, wanted to say. What's the result? by me, even if I did not intend initially, and what was heard by others? Even in a hurried everyday speech, the parable is wider than we used to think, and the ability to read not one-dimensional meanings, tactically anticipating the interlocutor's reactions, is highly valued as a manifestation of mental acuity.

Case Study

An ingenious, unexpected and spectacular communicative chodopisan in Autobiographies Mark Twain. The favorite of the public and a skillful communicator, Twain often spoke to a wide audience reading his stories. One of such speeches, he considered it possible to start with an anecdote ... bearded and not too funny. Predictably, the anecdote aroused the audience's rather bewilderment than the enthusiasm: people came to listen to a well-known comedian, and they were offered obviously "stale goods"! But the sour faces that flashed in the hall did not discourage the narrator on stage,

he continued his monologue and soon found the case screw the same anecdote once again - in an obvious, persistent effort to make laugh ("maybe last time did not get it?"). After a new setback, a shadow of indignation fell over the spectators' faces! - the poor fellow was noticeably distressed, but he did not give up his efforts and some time later began to taxi out to the third attempt ... The situation was heated and, according to the inner feeling of the initiator of the game, balanced already on the verge of disaster: Twain felt (about this he recalls already as an autobiographer) that another repetition of a stupid joke will turn into a serious failure for him. But it was at this moment that the expected, or rather, inspired, turn came: in the back row, someone laughed, then a laughter ran through the audience, then "banged" the whole hall. In an instant the audience was happily united with the artist on the stage: the risky "warming up" was successfully held, and it is worthwhile to clarify, due to what. As it is easy to see, Twain presented to the audience a figurative-speech oxymoron, a combination of logically incompatible: brilliantly played mediocrity. His speech mask was so convincing that she could not be disbelieved - at the same time, noticing the mask, it was impossible not to appreciate the talent of the game. As a result, it was ridiculous ... self-complacency, a sense of superiority, so inappropriately tested just now! Viewers as partners in the creative game were on top, and a possible communication failure turned into a triumph.

The above example reminds once again that verbal communication is always a risky balance of certainty and uncertainty, directness and indirectness, understanding and misunderstanding, sought and found in relation to a specific situation, based on rules, norms and postulates, but in the absence of any or any guarantees.

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