Occupational Safety And Health Management Essay

Increasingly sophisticated work procedures and changes in working conditions, alongside the ensuing new or changing types of hazard, need a new and organized approach to safeness and health at the job. Solutions are required, which allow the employers for taking account of safe practices and health guidelines at all functional levels and then for all activities, and convert them into appropriate procedures on a boring basis. Occupational protection and health (OSH) must be managed.

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management

The idea of an OSH management system (OSHMS) is rather sophisticated and there are several meanings available. The current controversy about OSH management systems makes clear that there surely is no standardised knowledge of the concept of occupational health insurance and safety management and different solutions and models exist. It is the case that only incomplete elements are thought to be complete management systems. Although the overall overall goal is to improve basic safety and health of the employees, one can find at a more detailed level a variety of angles. For example

Avoidance as an overriding company objective

The incorporation of occupational basic safety and health as an overriding company aim is a basic prerequisite for an effective occupational basic safety and health management system. The criterion of the 'overriding company goal' will thus be interpreted that safe practices and health are of equal ranking in comparison to other company targets. It's important to know a which level and consequently how the issue of occupational health insurance and safety will sit down as an overall purpose alongside other chosen objectives, like the improvement of competitiveness the reach and development of a market position or top-quality development, in order to ascertain whether the material attaches a high or medium target to these goals. The enterprise has to determine occupational safe practices and health options and these have to be seen in all organisational activities.

Campaign of the employer's responsibility

The responsibility of the company for occupational protection and health of these applied is a central element in the principles of occupational security and health.

Improvement of the employees' participation and their representatives

One central concern is the participation of the employee, irrespective of whether they participate at the individual level/individual case or at the amount of collective representation.

Elevating the inspiration of the top management and employees

The drive of top management is meticulously related to the campaign of the employer's responsibility. The top management associated with an enterprise is the main element player for a comprehensive corporate policy in the field of occupational safe practices and health. Since this group of people is usually occupied using their management duties, they may have only few resources for other issues such as occupational safeness and health. An OSHMS may increase and keep maintaining the drive of top management involving issues of occupational safe practices and health.

Improvement of the quality of the products and the services and the environmental conditions at enterprise level

The quality of products and services and environmentally friendly conditions within the enterprise can be related to the benefits of an OSHMS. Inner control issues can play an important role regarding these two aspects.

Reduced amount of operational costs

The objective to lessen the costs is not that which is pointed out most regularly. However, the reduction of accidents at the job and the decrease of work-related ill-health can be seen as important. Effective health and safety regulations can clearly contribute to cost-reduction strategies. Most important are questions about the costs arising for the employer in case of an accident.

One can also consider keeping the additional resources that are required for the introduction of an OSHMS, if possible, at a minimal level and, if it can be achieved without friction, integrate an OSHMS in to the operational functions.

Creation and use of synergies with regards to other management systems

Usually corporations or organisations already have some kind of management system. If an OSHMS is unveiled, and then web links to other systems need to be considered When possible, synergies must be used. In many cases, this will involve the ISO expectations 9000 ff. and 14000 ff as well as the Western Environmental Management and Audit Plan (EMAS).

Increasing transparency in the venture and towards exterior organisations and/or persons

Increasing transparency is also emphasised as an objective. This is often in order to boost relations with national/regional government bodies.

Existence of an structured approach to hazard recognition and risk management which can contribute to the provision of your safer and healthier working environment and the avoidance of a higher proportion of incidents and occupational health problems. This should lessen lost time through staff illness and harm as well as ensure business continuity.

The management of protection and health becoming more transparent and effective by translating the outputs of risk evaluation, audits, inspections, legal reviews and incident investigations into action packages to minimise the chance of future injuries.

Improved staff morale, potential reductions in liability cases and lower insurance premiums.

Increased credibility from having an OSH management system implemented and independently evaluated and certified.

Accident causation models

To prevent incidents and injuries effectively in workplaces it is necessary to identify automobile accident causation models. If professionals know the main of a major accident, they can placed effective actions to handle the vulnerabilities from first steps.

There are several theories on mishap causation and the modelling of automobile accident mechanisms. The first incident causation model, also called the domino theory, is produced by Heinrich (1941) and signifies the linear one-by-one progression of events leading to the crash and then damage.

Bird (1974) suggested the first upgrade of the domino theory, which 24 months later has been detailed by Parrot and Loftus (1976). As certain publications showcase (Kjellen, 1987; HSC, 1993), both Heinrich and Bird's models explain crash causation as a one-dimensional collection of situations.

Multi-causality of accidents was created by Reason (1990) by the finish of the 1980s. According to Reason, the car accident causation process can be an interaction between latent (probable) and active failures and to avoid this connections, the pro-active engagement of top management is vital. Active failures are the immediate observable causes in an accident and they're easily identified. On the other hand, latent failures may be present in the machine for many years, before being exposed by productive failures and they are difficult to identify, as they are covered in the organisation (e. g. : poor design, spaces in supervision, lack of training).

In the security research, the significant contribution of human errors to crashes is also broadly recognized. Rasmussen (1987) advised the SRK platform for Skill- structured, Rule- established, and Knowledge-based behavior in order to distinguish between three different degrees of real human cognitive control of the environment. This platform was chiefly designed to support the knowledge of human cognition in several situations characterised by the level of familiarity.

A well-known behaviourist model of the overdue 1980s, which links the task of Rasmussen and Reason and is based on attribution theory, is that of Hale and Glendon (1987). Attribution theory can be involved with how people process information in determining the causality of occurrences (Lacroix and Dejoy, 1989). The Hale and Glendon model considers that hazard is always present in the place of work and conceptualises the role of individual action in controlling risk, i. e. it investigates the factors affecting the individual behavior in facing threat and it shows how people may, through their activities, create hazard and also how they could control that risk and prevent hazardous outcomes.

According to Kingston-Hewlett (1996; cited by Jacinto, 2003), the Hale and Glendon model is concerned with the non-observable elements of the machine: perceptions and decisions. Regardless of the criticism the model received, it has been recognised as valid and useful, in the context of people whatsoever levels in organisations, with various examples of remoteness from the immediate danger (HSC, 1993).

With the entrance of the socio-technical way, the overall theory regarding incident causation is the fact safeness performance is influenced by internal (e. g. safe practices culture) or exterior factors (e. g. regulatory and governmental issues). Among models developed in the 1990s for the assessment of security in this broader context, Rasmussen (1997) shown a multi-level model of a socio-technical system, with various stars, ranging from legislators, over managers and work organizers, to system providers. The socio-technical system is decomposed matching to organisational levels, that are then things of analysis within different disciplines, and the overall procedure is to explicitly identify the boundaries of safe operation, make them recognized to the actors and give them an opportunity to learn to handle the boundaries. Matching to Kirwan (2001), Rasmussen's socio-technical platform can be used to go through the causes of accidents, not only concentrating on individuals, but also tracing back to the accident's real root-causes. However, this superior approach is most suited for organic and high-tech organisations. In parallel with the socio-technical strategy, the 1990s also observed new developments regarding the analysis of real human and organisational errors. Two leading research workers in this field are Reason (1997) and Hollnagel (1998).

Later advancements of Reason's work (1997) add a more detailed model of organisational accident causation, which ultimately shows the affect and pathway of potential failures and outlines three degrees of concern

The organisation, the work environment and the individual (or team).

In his model, Reason considers the causal sequence, from organisational factors, to local work environment conditions, to individual (or team) unsafe serves, to failed defences and bad outcomes.

Although Reason's model has already established a major effect on how incidents are conceived, O'Hare (2000) criticizes it for being difficult to use as a functional tool and he proposes his own construction, known as the wheel of misfortune. The basic composition of the model is dependant on Helmreich's (1990) concentric spheres representing forward line workers, local and global conditions with an associated classification system.

Hollnagel (1998) is, as stated earlier, another leading theorist from the 1990s, who suggested the technique CREAM (cognitive trustworthiness and error analysis method). Hollnagel makes a difference between triggers (genotypes) and effects (phenotypes or manifestations) and represents the full context in which problems and accidents appear.

If we make an effort to make a classification of the accident models presented above, we can divide them in three major groups. The first is ''sequential crash models", a term also used by Hollnagel (2002), which explain the automobile accident as a sequence of occasions in a specific order, e. g. the domino theory. The second reason is ''human information processing incident models", a term also utilized by Lehto and Salvendy (1991), which summarize the accident in terms of human behaviour and actions, e. g. SRK construction by Rasmussen, CREAM by Hollnagel, the Hale and Glendon model and the third is ''systemic mishap models", a term also employed by Hollnagel (2002), such as Reason's model such as organisational and management factors and describe the performance of the whole system.

Accident Models Classification

This difference is not obligatory, i. e. an accident model can be classified into various ways, based on the precise way endorsed.

Laflamme (1990) classified accident causation models that are most quoted in the books into four different techniques

1. Decisional Models

2. Sequential Models

3. Energetic and Sequential Models

4. Organisational Models

Lehto and Salvendy (1991) made a differentiation of mishap causation models into three teams

1. General models of the crash process

2. Models of human error and unsafe behaviour

3. Types of human damage mechanics

Kjellen (2000) explained five types of models

1. Causal-Sequence

2. Process

3. Energy

4. Logical Tree

5. SHE-Management

Hollnagel (2002) categorized the mishap models into sequential, epidemiological and systemic.

Attwood et al. (2006), in their books review of occupational crash models, presented the first automobile accident models, the models predicated on holistic techniques and the primarily quantitative and statistical models.

Svenson (1999) areas: ''an car accident can be described in different ways with regards to the accident research model that is used". This is because different models focus on different aspects and they are associated with different suggestions for improvement.

The need for OSH management

The explanations why health and security should be well handled fall under the three main following headings (Bateman, King and Lewis, 1994): humanitarian, financial, and legal.

a) Humanitarian Consideration

Many folks have been wiped out in workplace injuries or endured major injuries due to occupational disease. Beside this, there are still many people who suffer from long-term health problems because of their work. The monetary costs are believed later but it is clear that this scale of human being hurting should be satisfactory in an advanced, civilized modern culture.

Fortunately, the picture is bettering, partly credited to gradual raising of health insurance and safety expectations. However, the contraction of the country's creation and industrial bottom has also played a component.

b) Financial Costs

The financial costs of crashes serve as the next reason of the implementation of effective management of health and safety. A few of these costs are probably measurable whilst others are covered. Measurable costs make reference to the payment paid to employees by means of damages and are occasionally the related legal and administrative costs. Although these repayment paid are made by the insurance company, in the long run the insurance premium paid will undoubtedly reflect the says background of the workplace.

Therefore, senior managers or protection specialists may be unacquainted with the size of the prime being paid. As the concealed costs of crashes are either impossible to quantify or their quantification would be totally impracticable. However, the invisible costs are usually much larger than the measurable costs, particularly when the large numbers of minor accidental injuries and non-injury injuries are taken into account.

c) Legal Sanction

Occupational security and health is under the legislation, in conditions of general or specific request. Much of it can give rise to says for damages, but all could cause action by the relevant enforcing specialist. Often the most damaging effect of legal sanctions can be on the organization's own image of itself. Legal fees also often match or even surpass the standard size of fines meted out.

Critical Success factors for Accident Prevention

The variety of circumstances helps it be difficult to recognize clearly the primary success factors.

However, all the conditions involve some basic factors in common.

A precise risk assessment is the rational and structural precondition for a powerful risk removal or reduction.

Strong motivation on the part of an important and powerful group (like a department, a workers' steering committee, employer). High inspiration by the initiators of the action to control the risks or a specific risk and no strong objection by other parties in or beyond your institution.

Support from top management. This is necessary to ensure that necessary resources such as budget, recruiting, equipment, etc. , are made designed for the task.

Involvement of relevant factors such as staff themselves, recruiting, financial division, OSH practitioners, etc. A significant group that needs to be motivated and engaged right from the start are the individuals. They should be included not only in the risk analysis itself but also during the identification and implementation of possible alternatives. Their functional and thorough knowledge and competence is often needed to develop workable precautionary measures.

A good evaluation and understanding of effective potential alternatives, guidelines and medical or technologies available.

A trusting and cooperative atmosphere among the main element factors involved in the risk diagnosis process.

Absence of major road blocks to the adoption of the precautionary or precautionary measures. These might include

economic barriers such as insufficient economic resources or negative cost-benefit evaluation;

a insufficient available solutions such as alternate technologies, equipment, work techniques;

Negative results for others (workers, departments) by transferring the risk to another area.

Besides these basic success factors, which are normal to all the conditions, the evaluation of the conditions shows that there are a few additional success factors that stimulate the actors going further than normal to attain results that are way above average.

Some of these additional factors are

A high motivation to be the best in the sector, or just to be as good as it is possible, or to enhance the image of the business or to enhance the image of the safeness and health department (e. g. NO Crash, CRUSHED Fingertips, BETTER LIFT);

The prominent role played out by those in the workplace worried (or the people vulnerable) in planning workflow (e. g. BETTERLIFT);

The existing difficulties in replacing tired staff (e. g. ROADWORKERS);

A high drive to develop a built-in occupational basic safety and health strategy (e. g. HOLISTIC RA, STRESS IN Nursing homes, BETTERLIFT);

The lifestyle of inner capacities to recognize and develop effective solutions

The option of simple solutions for high dangers (e. g. VACCINATION, Temperatures Control, BRAKE CLEANING);

Proper monitoring of the preventive or precautionary measures adopted (will be the methods actually being carried out? are they working? are they ample?)

The option of exterior support for complicated or advanced solutions (e. g. HPD-RAILROAD, NEEDLESTICK, SCREWDRIVERS);

The existence of public support for small and mid-sized enterprises in a complete sector (e. g. VACCINATION);

Motivation to reduce the related costs of incidents and diseases in high-risk occupations or areas (e. g. ROADWORKERS, VACCINATION).

If such additional factors are put into the basic success factors, a solid risk reduction or even the eradication of the risk seems to be feasible.

One crucial factor in success is to hook up the risk evaluation phase successfully to the next step, namely the planning or risk management phase. The main goal of this period is to recognize and adopt the possible risk elimination or reduction measures.

In small and mid-sized businesses (SMEs) these capacities to plan and execute larger jobs and develop effective solutions are generally less developed. However, as a few of the circumstances show, like much larger companies, SMEs can be reinforced effectively by methodical or technological assignments or open public support activities.

Most of the case studies include a mixture of precautionary measures (eliminating risk at source, adapting the work to the individual, adapting to technical progress, offering appropriate instructions to staff, etc. ). The adoption of these interconnected methods at various levels (organisational, individual, etc. ) is also a key success factor.

After the alternatives have been executed, it is important not to ignore to determine the results to be able to identify the possible transfer of risks or egression of new hazards. Risk assessment processes are part of a strategy of constant improvement.

Key elements of successful OSH management

Step 1: Establishing the policy

The same sorts of event that cause accidental injuries and condition can also lead to property harm and interrupt development and that means you must aim to control all accidental loss. Identifying risks and assessing dangers, deciding what precautions are needed, placing them in place and checking they are really used, helps to protect people, and boosts quality, and safeguards herb and creation.

Your health and safety insurance plan should influence your activities, including the collection of people, equipment and materials, just how that work is done and exactly how you design and provide goods and services. A written affirmation of your policy and the organisation and preparations for implementing and monitoring it shows your staff, and other people, that risks have been identified and risks evaluated, eliminated or handled.

A risk is something with potential to cause harm. The harm will change in severity. Some hazards may cause death, some serious disease or impairment, others only slashes and bruises. Risk is the blend of the severity of damage with the likelihood of it taking place.

Ask yourself

1. Do you have a clear insurance policy for health insurance and safety; is it on paper?

2. What does you achieve in health and safety last year?

3. How much are you shelling out for health and safety, and are you getting value for money?

4. How much cash are you burning off by not taking care of health and safe practices?

5. Does indeed your insurance plan prevent accidental injuries, reduce deficits and really impact the way you work? Be honest!

Step 2: Organising the staff

To make your wellbeing and safety insurance plan effective you will need to really get your staff included and committed. This is often known as a 'positive health insurance and safety culture'.

The four 'Cs' of positive health insurance and safety culture are

1. Competence: recruitment, training and advisory support.

2. Control: allocating duties, securing commitment, instructions and guidance. 3. Cooperation: between individuals and organizations.

4. Communication: spoken, written and visible.


- Assess the skills had a need to perform all tasks safely.

- Supply the methods to ensure that all employees, including your managers, supervisors and short-term staff, are adequately instructed and trained.

- Ensure that individuals doing especially dangerous work have the required training, experience and other qualities to handle the work carefully.

- Request access to audio advice and help.

- Carry out restructuring or reorganisation to ensure the competence of these taking on new health insurance and safety responsibilities.


- Lead by example: show your commitment and provide clear path, let everyone understands health and security is important.

- Identify people in charge of particular health insurance and safety careers especially where special know-how is called for, e. g. doing risk assessments, generating forklift vehicles.

- Ensure that managers, supervisors and team leaders understand their tasks and have the time and resources to transport them out.

- Ensure everyone knows what they must do and how they'll be held accountable - set aims.


- Chair your wellbeing and safety committee if you have one. Check with your personnel and their reps.

- Involve personnel in planning and reviewing performance, writing types of procedures and solving problems.

- Coordinate and cooperate with those contractors who focus on your premises.


- Provide information about risks, risks and precautionary steps to employees and contractors focusing on your premises.

- Discuss health insurance and safe practices regularly.

- Be 'apparent' on health insurance and safety.

Ask yourself

1. Have you allocated responsibilities for health insurance and protection to specific people? Are they clear on what they have to do and are they kept accountable?

2. Can you consult and involve your personnel and their representatives effectively?

3. Do your staff have sufficient information about the risks they run and the precautionary measures?

4. Have you got the right levels of knowledge? Are your people properly trained?

5. Do you will need specialist advice from exterior and also have you arranged to obtain it?

Step 3: Planning and setting up standards

Planning is the key to making certain your wellbeing and safety initiatives really work. Planning health and safety involves setting aims, identifying hazards, evaluating risks, implementing benchmarks of performance and developing a positive culture. It is often useful to record your plans on paper. Your planning should give

- Identifying hazards and assessing dangers, and deciding how they can be eliminated or operated;

- Complying with the health and safety laws, which connect with your business;

- Agreeing health and safety goals with professionals and supervisors;

- A purchasing and offer policy which will take health and basic safety into account;

- Design of jobs, functions, equipment, products and services, safe systems of work;

- Procedures to deal with serious and imminent threat;

- Cooperation with neighbours, and/or subcontractors;

- Setting standards against which performance can be measured.

Standards help create a positive culture and control hazards. They lay out what folks in your organisation will do to provide your insurance policy and control risk. They need to identify who does what, when and with what result. Three key points about standards

Standards must be

- Measurable;

- Achievable;

- Realistic.

Statements such as 'staff must be trained' are difficult to measure unless you know exactly what 'trained' means and who is to do the work. 'All machines will be guarded' is difficult to accomplish if there is no way of measuring the adequacy of the guarding. Many industry-based specifications already exist and you will take up them where applicable. In other circumstances you will need to take advice and place your own, preferably referring to figures, volumes and levels which are seen to be genuine and can be examined. For instance

- doing risk assessments and applying the settings required;

- retaining workshop temperatures within a specified range;

- Specifying levels of waste materials, wastewaters or emissions, which are acceptable;

- specifying methods and consistency for examining guards on machines, ergonomic design standards for jobs and workstations, degrees of training;

- arranging to consult staff or their reps at collection intervals;

- monitoring performance specifically ways at set in place times.

Ask yourself

1. Have you got a health insurance and security plan?

2. Is health insurance and safety always considered before any new work is started?

3. Perhaps you have identified risks and assessed risks to your own personnel and the public, and set benchmarks for premises, plant, substances, techniques, people and products?

4. Do you have a plan to cope with serious or imminent hazard, e. g. fires, process deviations etc?

5. Will be the standards put in place and dangers effectively managed?

Step 4: Measuring the performance

Just like finance, development or sales, you will need to measure your wellbeing and safety performance to find out if you are achieving success. You need to know:

- Where you are;

- Where you want to be;

- What's the difference and why.

Active monitoring, before things go wrong, consists of regular inspection and checking to ensure that your standards are being carried out and management control buttons are working. Reactive monitoring, after things fail, entails learning from your blunders, if they have led to injuries and illness, property destruction or near misses.

- Active monitoring (before things fail). Will you be achieving the aims and criteria you place yourself and are they effective?

- Reactive monitoring (after things go wrong). Investigating incidents, cases of illness, property harm and near misses discovering in each case why performance was substandard.

You must ensure that information from lively and reactive monitoring is utilized to recognize situations that create risks, and do something about them. Top priority should get where risks are greatest. Look closely at serious incidents and those with potential for serious damage. Both require a knowledge of the immediate and the root causes of situations. Investigate and record what happened find out why. Send the info to the people who have authority to have remedial action, including organisational and insurance policy changes.

Ask yourself

1. Do you know how well you perform in health and safety?

2. How do you know if you are achieving your own objectives and specifications for health insurance and security? Are your control buttons for risks good enough?

3. How will you know you are complying with medical and safety regulations that have an impact on your business?

4. Do your mishaps investigations get to all the root causes or do they stop when you find the first person who has made a blunder?

5. Have you got accurate information of injuries, ill health and accidental loss?

Step 5: Learning from experience, auditing and review

Monitoring supplies the information to enable you to review activities and determine how to boost performance. Audits, by your own personnel or outsiders, supplement monitoring activities by seeking to find out if your policy, organisation and systems are in fact attaining the right results. They tell you about the trustworthiness and success of your systems. Learn from your experiences. Combine the results from measuring performance with information from audits to boost your approach to health and safeness management. Review the potency of your health and safety plan, paying particular focus on

- The amount of compliance with health insurance and safety performance expectations (including legislation);

- Areas where expectations are absent or limited;

- Achievement of stated goals within given timescales;

- Injury, health problems and event data analyses of immediate and underlying causes, developments and common features.

These indicators will highlight where you will need to boost.

Ask yourself

1. How do you study from your mistakes as well as your successes?

2. Do you carry out health and safeness audits?

3. What action is used on audit conclusions?

4. Do the audits entail staff whatsoever levels?

5. When performed you last review your plan and performance?

OSH Policy

An OSH Policy is a way of stating how you will, your employees, contractors and visitors are anticipated to act when they are on Company property or doing Company related activities. As an company or responsible builder, you will be required for legal reasons to provide a 'safe system of work'. This means you need a method of interacting, duplicating and applying a safe way of working. The foundation for this process commences with your Occupational Health insurance and Safety Regulations.

Most OSH plans have a similar format, they often include

Aim - The aim outlines the particular policy intends to achieve

Policy - This is actually the real body of the working document. It really is here that specifies what needs to be done and the way the company will achieve its aim.

Top management shall explain and authorize the organization's OSH plan and ensure that within the identified opportunity of its OSH management system it

is appropriate to the nature and level of the organization's OSH hazards;

b) Carries a commitment to protection of injury and ill health insurance and continual improvement in OSH management and OSH performance;

c) Carries a commitment to at least comply with appropriate legal requirements and with other requirements to which the company subscribes that relate to its OSH dangers;

d) Provides the framework for setting and reviewing OSH aims;

e) is documented, implemented and retained;

f) is communicated to all or any people working under the control of the business with the intent they are made alert to their individual OSH commitments;

g) is available to interested functions; and

h) is evaluated occasionally to ensure that it remains relevant and appropriate to the organization.

Top management should display the management and commitment essential for the OSH management system to be successful and also to achieve advanced OSH performance.

An OSH policy establishes a standard sense of way and is also the drivers for employing and bettering an organization's OSH management system so that it can maintain and possibly improve its OSH performance.

It should enable persons under the control of the business to understand the overall commitment of the organization and how this may affect their individual responsibilities.

The responsibility for defining and authorizing an OSH policy rests with the organization's top management. The ongoing and proactive involvement of top management in developing and utilizing an OSH insurance plan is essential.

The organization's OSH policy should be appropriate to the nature and scale of its determined risks and should guide the setting up of objectives. To become appropriate, the OSH plan should

be steady with a perspective of the organization's future, and

be sensible, neither overstating the nature of the risks the organization faces, nor trivializing them.

In expanding its OSH insurance plan, an organization should think about

its mission, eye-sight, core worth and values,

coordination with other policies (corporate, included, etc. ),

the needs of people working under the control of the business,

the OSH hazards of the business, legal and other requirements to that your business subscribes that relate to its OSH risks,

historical and current OSH performance by the business,

opportunities and needs for continual improvement and preventing injury and unwell health,

the views of interested functions,

what is needed to establish realistic and achievable goals?

The plan is, as the very least, necessary to include assertions about the

commitment of a business to

the elimination of accident and ill health,

continual improvement in OSH management,

continual improvement in OSH performance,

compliance with relevant legal requirements, and

compliance with other requirements to which the firm subscribes.

The OSH insurance policy can be associated with other coverage documents of the organization and really should be consistent with the organization's overall business plans and with its insurance policies for other management disciplines, e. g. quality management or environmental management.

The communication of the policy should assist in

demonstrating the determination of top management and the business to OSH,

increasing awareness of the commitments manufactured in the policy statement,

explaining why the OSH system is made and is maintained,

guiding individuals in understanding their OSH obligations and accountabilities.

In interacting the policy, concern should be given to how to make and maintain recognition in both new and existing individuals under the control of the business. The insurance policy can be communicated in choice forms to the policy declaration itself, such as by using guidelines, directives and strategies, wallet credit cards, posters, etc. In interacting the policy, bill should be taken of issues such as diversity at work, literacy levels, terminology skills, etc.

It is made for the organization to regulate how it wishes to make the policy open to its interested functions, e. g. through publication on a web site, or by providing imprinted copies on request.

The OSH plan should be analyzed periodically to ensure that it remains relevant and appropriate to the business. Change is unavoidable, as legislation and communal expectations evolve; therefore, the organization's OSH insurance plan and OSH management system have to be analyzed regularly to ensure their carrying on suitability and effectiveness. If changes are created to the policy, the revised insurance policy should be communicated to all individuals working under the control of the business.

Organisation and responsibilities

Organizing is the procedure of allocating the obligations and the required arrangements to be taken. Since it was discussed earlier, HSE (1991) summarize the four C's of organizing as control, assistance, communication and competence. Organizing also outlines the needs for proper OSH paperwork.

Quality Management

Top management shall review the organization's OSH management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its carrying on suitability, adequacy and performance.

Reviews shall include evaluating opportunities for improvement and the necessity for changes to the OSH management system, like the OSH policy and OSH goals. Files of the management reviews shall be retained.

Input to management reviews shall include

a) Results of inside audits and evaluations of conformity with suitable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the corporation subscribes;

b) The results of involvement and appointment;

c) Relevant communication(s) from external interested gatherings, including issues;

d) The OSH performance of the business;

e) The level to which objectives have been achieved;

f) Status of occurrence investigations, corrective actions and preventive actions;

g) Follow-up actions from prior management reviews;

h) Changing circumstances, including trends in legal and other requirements related to OSH;

i) Recommendations for improvement.

The outputs from management reviews will be constant with the organization's commitment to continual improvement and shall include any decisions and activities related to possible changes to

a) OSH performance;

b) OSH plan and goals;

c) Resources; and

d) Other components of the OSH management system.

Relevant outputs from management review will be offered for communication and discussion Management reviews should give attention to the entire performance of the OSH management system with regard to

Suitability (is the machine appropriate to the organization; reliant on its size, the type of its hazards, etc. ),

Adequacy (is the machine fully responding to the organization's OSH policy and goals), and

Effectiveness (could it be accomplishing the desired results?).

Management reviews should be carried out by top management, frequently (e. g. quarterly, semi-annually, or annually) and can be carried out by meetings or other communication means. Partial management reviews of the performance of the OSH management system can be performed at more regular intervals, if appropriate.

Different reviews can talk about varying elements of the entire management review.

The management appointee gets the responsibility for making certain reports on the entire performance of the OSH management system are offered to top management, for review.

In arranging a management review, account should be given to the following

the topics to be resolved,

who needs to participate to ensure the efficiency of the review (top management, professionals, OSH specialist advisors, other personnel),

responsibilities of individual participants in respect of the review,

information to be brought to the review,

How the review will be noted.

In relation to the OSH performance of the organization, also to show evidence of improvement on the insurance policy commitments to avoid injury and ill health, the next inputs could be looked at

reports of emergencies (real or exercises),

worker satisfaction surveys,

incident figures,

results of regulatory inspections,

results and/or tips from monitoring and measurement,

OSH performance of companies,

OSH performance of offered products and services,

Information on changes in legal and other requirements. As well as the specific inputs for management review required by OHSAS 18001, the next inputs can be considered

reports from specific managers on the effectiveness of the machine locally,

reports of ongoing risk identification, risk analysis and risk control functions,

Progress in the achievements of OSH training ideas.

In addition to the outputs required by OHSAS 18001, details of the following issues can be considered

The suitability, adequacy and performance of current hazard identification, risk diagnosis and risk control processes,

Current degrees of risk and the potency of existing control options,

Adequacy of resources (financial, staff, material),

The express of preparedness for crisis,

An examination of the consequences of foreseeable changes to legislation or technology.

Depending on the decisions and actions agreed at a review, the type and types of communication of the results of the review, also to whom they will be communicated, also needs to be looked at.


To summarize, it is obvious that Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System is vital to every workplace and job to prevent accidents and incidents to people, machines and properties and also to enhance the quality of the merchandise, services and the environment and also to reduce unwanted and invisible costs of an enterprise which many of them are not insured. Managing the work environment in terms of safeness and health can result in company's benefit, efficiency and productivity therefore many companies wish to follow OSH Management Systems.

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