Organizational culture and corporate patriotism
As a result of studying the material of the chapter, the student must:
• the essence of the organizational culture, its elements and levels, typologies, national specifics;
• the essence and content of the main methods of developing and adopting the optimal management decisions, relying on the analysis of the culture of the organization and the use of staff potential;
be able to
• determine the advantages and disadvantages of organizational cultures of different kinds;
• Identify features of organizational cultures of specific companies;
• apply in practice the acquired knowledge and skills of the formation, maintenance and management of organizational culture to improve the effectiveness of the organization;
• skills in the diagnosis and management of organizational culture;
• the ability to audit human resources and carry out diagnostics of organizational culture.
The concept of organizational culture
Organization is a complex organism, the basis of its life potential is the organizational culture. Organizational culture is a collection of meaningful basic representations shared by most members of the organization or its active core, which functions as a means of internal regulation and programming of the organizational behavior of individuals or groups at a symbolic level.
Organizational culture is one of the fundamental in the modern theory of organizations. It arose in the theory of the organization relatively recently - in the late 1970s. due to a number of very dissimilar reasons. The first reason was that at that time the process of disintegration of various corporate associations created in the 1960s began to be observed. When two or more companies unite, their leadership and the general public have some euphoria, a hope for the rapid and impressive success of the new larger organization. Arguments in favor of unification are very clear, they can be formulated by anyone, even a person far from the economy. However, a very short period of time passes, and the unification begins to work poorly. It does not justify the hopes placed on it, and the companies that created it seriously think about getting out of it. According to statistics, more than 60% of associations are unsuccessful, so managers are interested in the factors that affect this process. Along with other things it turned out that one of the main reasons for unsuccessful associations is the difference in the cultures of the companies that form it. From this moment the managers' interest to this problem arises, and financing of the most diverse studies of organizational culture begins.
Another cause of interest in this category in the business community is the process of globalization and the associated large-scale output of many companies to foreign markets, the opening of enterprises abroad. Cultural values of different peoples have a direct impact on the specifics of the organization of production and management in the branches of multinational companies. Thus, the globalization of business also revealed a fairly close relationship between management, which was previously thought to a large extent as some universal set of knowledge and skills, and the cultures within which it is implemented.
Finally, the prerequisites for the emergence of a category of organizational culture existed in the management theory itself. In the 1960s. The situational and systemic approaches to management became dominant. The situational approach in particular was quite pragmatic. He was completely devoid of the philosophical depth inherent in earlier classical concepts of management and the doctrine of human relations. The basic postulate of the situational approach was that all companies are unique in their own way, and you just need to develop some algorithms for selecting management procedures to specific conditions. This basic position effectively closed the possibility of a deep analysis of the organization as a special kind of environment for human existence, a special social institution with its own ideology. The pragmatism of the situational approach was compensated to a certain extent by the emergence of the notion of organizational culture, which allowed us to discuss the problems of organization and management in a deep and abstract manner, linking them to different values, spiritual experiences of people, their aspirations and beliefs.
In the scientific literature, there are different points of view on the essence and content of the concept of "organizational culture". One of the first definitions of organizational culture was given by E. Jakus (1952): "The culture of an enterprise is a habitual, traditional way of thinking and a mode of action shared by all employees of the enterprise to a greater or lesser degree and which must be learned and at least partly accepted by the newcomers, so that the new members of the collective become "their own" & quot ;. A number of scientists define the organizational culture on the basis of a systematic approach. Thus, VA Spivak believes that organizational culture is a "system of material and spiritual values, manifestations that interact with each other, inherent in this corporation, reflecting its individuality ... manifested in behavior, interaction, perception of oneself and the environment" . From R. Ruttinger's point of view, organizational culture "is a system of jointly born and real beliefs and beliefs about values."
Some researchers define organizational culture by enumerating its basic components. OS Vikhansky and AI Naumov understand the culture of organization as "philosophy and management ideology, value orientations, beliefs, expectations, assumptions and norms shared by the members of the organization and underlying the relationships inside and outside the organization". According to M. Armstrong, corporate culture is "a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms of behavior and values common to all employees of this organization. They may not be clearly expressed, but in the absence of direct instructions determine the mode of actions and interactions of people and largely affect the progress of the work. "
Classical definitions of organizational culture were given to G. Hofshtede and E. Shane. According to H. Hofsted, organizational culture is "collective thought programming that distinguishes members of one organization from another". E. Shane also believed that "culture is a collection of collective basic rules invented, discovered or worked out by a certain group of people as it learned to solve problems related to adaptation to the external environment and internal integration and developed fairly well for to be considered valuable. "
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