13.3. Organizational structure of local administration: areas for improvement
In general, the structure of local administration in all municipalities is built on general principles in accordance with the functional and sectoral distribution of powers to address issues of local importance between structural divisions. At the same time, it is a fairly dynamic system that is constantly improving as the challenges facing the municipality change, the living conditions of citizens, and other factors.
By organizational structure is understood the composition and subordination of the interrelated organizational units (separate posts), links (management units) and levels (levels), assigned certain rights and responsibilities for the performance of the relevant target management functions.
The control link is a separate cell with strictly oriented control functions, and the step (level) of management is a set of control links located at a certain hierarchical level.
The formation of a specific organizational structure of the local administration is affected by several factors, the main ones are:
1) type of municipal formation. It predetermines a list of issues of local importance, from which the authority of the administration is formed;
2) the goals and objectives of the social and economic development of the municipality, Depending on the selected development priorities, will be "strengthened" those links of government, which are assigned functions to achieve the relevant goals and objectives:
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3) the size of the territory, the number and composition of the population of the municipality. In larger cities, more complex administrative structures are built, including, among other things, the availability of territorial structural units;
4) the level of development of production and market infrastructure. In the more developed municipal formation in this respect, there are more opportunities for outsourcing, i.e. transfer of certain functions of the administration that are not of an authoritative nature to a more efficient performer;
5) various local features - geographical, natural, demographic, historical. They determine the need to create structural units that are not typical for a functional purpose and may not be available in most municipalities.
In addition to the above, the internal structure of the local administration is significantly influenced by internal factors such as personal qualities of management and its role in the management system, the management technologies used, the level of resistance to innovation, the organization of labor, the logistics of the administration, and others. At the present time, the determining factor underlying the formation of the structure of the local administration is its competence in accordance with the issues of local importance envisaged by the federal law and the distribution of powers between local self-government bodies enshrined in the charter of the municipality.
There are six groups of issues that fall within the competence of the local administration: 1) issues of socio-economic development of the territory; 2) issues of the municipal economy; 3) financial issues; 4) social issues; 5) administrative and organizational issues; 6) execution of transferred state powers.
The first five groups of questions are present in all municipalities, regardless of type. The sixth group of questions concerns only municipal districts and city districts, which have the right to exercise certain state powers.
These authorization groups are distributed between industry and functional structural units, resulting in a typical linear-functional structure of the local administration, which usually includes:
1) the leading link: the head of administration, deputy heads, among whom there may be a first deputy;
2) structural units that may be subordinate to the head of administration, one of his deputies or in subordination among themselves:
- branch structural divisions, which are responsible for certain branches of municipal activity (housing and communal services, education, culture, health care, transport, etc.);
- functional structural units that perform one or several functions in all sectors (economic service, financial authority, municipal property management authority, etc.)
3) territorial bodies (for example, for a city with a district division);
4) the administration's administration that provides and organizes its activities (legal, personnel, information services, records management, work with citizens' appeals, own accountancy, etc.).
Such organizational structures are called linear-functional because of the main orientation in the decision-making system on the interaction between branch (linear) and functional structural divisions. The former are, as a rule, the initiators of decision-making, while the latter perform the functions of examination, approval of draft decisions.
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Depending on the role and place in the organizational structure, the importance and scope of the tasks to be performed, structural units have different statuses and, accordingly, have different names.
1. Departments are functional and branch structural divisions that carry out executive, administrative and control functions in a certain branch or sphere of management of a municipal formation and determine the conceptual development in this sphere (industry); are headed by deputy heads of administration.
2. Management are relatively independent structural divisions of the local administration, providing a certain direction for the local administration; the right to issue acts of management.
3. Committees - structural units, established and functioning on an ongoing basis in the priority direction of the administration.
4. Departments - structural divisions of the local administration that perform operational or auxiliary functions.
5. Sectors are organizationally separate subdivisions of the department (less often - management) that carry out executive activities and are formed to solve homogeneous tasks, usually over a period of time.>
6. Commissions - are created for a certain period of time to solve a problem.
However, this list is not unified, and in practice, there is often a significant inconsistency between the names of structural divisions, their place in the organizational structure and the functions performed.
In modern conditions, when the effectiveness of local government activities directly depends on the ability to strategic planning, orientation to the goals and objectives of the social and economic development of the municipal formation, the existing linearly functional organizational structures are not flexible enough and do not have time to adapt to changes in the external environment , the object of management, the needs of citizens.
The requirements for the widespread introduction of program-targeted management methods necessitate the formation of new (project-oriented) structures based on broad interdepartmental interaction with the involvement of individual structural divisions as the main executors of a specific task for a certain period of time.
With this approach, target programs, , are a system of activities tied in terms of resources and time. For the implementation of the program, it is planned to allocate the necessary resources and form a temporary collective of workers who, for the duration of the program, are to a certain extent in double subordination: to their immediate supervisor and to the responsible executor of the program. As a rule, project structures are formed in administrations in the form of commissions and working groups.
The use of program-targeted methods in building the organizational structure of the administration requires carrying out complex work on the regulation of the activities of structural units. In addition to analyzing the distribution of functions within the administration and reviewing existing provisions on structural divisions, it is necessary to describe and approve in the administrative regulations the system of interaction between structural divisions, the order of passing managerial decisions and the main administrative processes (chains of functions performed by various structural units in interaction leading to the solution of the set tasks).
When reorganizing the existing organizational structures of local administrations, one should keep in mind that any actions aimed at organizational changes invariably run into resistance of the organization itself as a social system that is oriented not to development but to stability and survival. Therefore, attempts to radically improve the organizational structure will not only not achieve the desired results of increasing the efficiency of activities, but also can lead to devastating consequences. The key to success in organizational change is a comprehensive scientific approach, based on the correlation of costs and results, in conjunction with a detailed study of the system "from within."
When determining the structure of local administration and the distribution of powers between its divisions, it is necessary to proceed from the following principles:
- expediency and logic, a clear delineation of functional blocks;
- avoid duplication and duplication;
- completeness of coverage and avoidance of gaps in addressing issues of local importance by the local administration as a whole;
- efficiency, which provides the possibility of assessing (measuring) the achieved work result;
is the adequacy of the security, which implies that the structural subdivision is provided to properly perform its functional duties in sufficient volume of material, legal, information and other types of security;
- the system and the relationship with other units, i.e. accounting when describing the functions of the structural unit of its relationships with other structures;
- structuring (detailing), i.e. division of the function of the structural unit into the functions of individual specialists, imputed to them in the form of official duties;
- efficiency, which means achieving the designated goal and solving the tasks of the unit at the lowest cost;
- avoiding the principle of creating structures for people & quot ;;
- a unified approach to the formation of structures and the definition of the number of local government bodies.
Obviously, the activities to introduce changes in the organizational structure of the local administration require competent expert and analytical work, as well as legal (development and maintenance of documents regulating the organization and operation of the administration) and personnel (retraining and raising the qualifications of employees, training of personnel reserve) of support.
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