Separation and cooperation of labor in the enterprise
The individual elements of the ITU and their totality are in general directly dependent on the accepted forms of division and labor co-operation.
Separation and cooperation of labor - is the specialization of the activities of workers and the establishment of the relationship between them. The goal of the division and cooperation of labor in the enterprise is to ensure a harmonious and uninterrupted work of the performers, the acquisition by each of them of the necessary labor skills, the deepening of knowledge of the functions performed and the rational use of working time. The results of the division and cooperation of labor contribute to the growth of its productivity.
The division of labor - is the differentiation, specialization of labor activity, leading to the identification and coexistence of its various types. The division of labor exists in different forms, corresponding to the level of development of the productive forces and the nature of the production relations. Through the division of labor, an exchange of activities is ensured. As a result, an employee of a certain type of specific labor is able to use the products of labor of any other specific labor.
Distinguish the division of labor within society and within the enterprise. Both types of separation are interrelated and interdependent. The division of social production into large industries (agriculture, industry, etc.) is called the general division of labor, the division of production branches into species and subspecies (for example, industry into specific industry types) private division of labor , and finally, the division of labor within the enterprise - a single division of labor.
The division of labor in an enterprise is determined by the following three main characteristics: the nature of the work of the employee and the intended purpose of the work performed, the homogeneity of the work, and their complexity. At enterprises, the division of labor is manifested in several forms: functional, professional, qualifying, technological.
Functional division of labor is the decomposition of the production process into component parts, as a result of which the performers are in a different attitude to this process. Some directly affect the subject of labor, others indirectly participate in the creation of products. Functional division of labor involves the division of the whole range of work, depending on the role (function) that the participants in the process of product creation fulfill. Hence the division of production personnel into workers, managers, specialists, technical specialists, employees, junior service personnel, pupils and security workers. It also takes place within one qualifying group (for example, the division of all workers into basic and auxiliary ones). Auxiliary workers provide basic tools for workers, repair, energy, transport and control operations, cleaning, etc. In the engineering industry of the main workers 46%, auxiliary - 54%. Correct their ratio is a condition for increasing labor productivity.
Professional division of labor is the distribution of responsibilities within functional groups of personnel. The main workers can be turners, milling machines, punchers, welders, etc .; auxiliary - repairmen, electricians, adjusters, etc .; engineers - designers, technologists, standardizers, etc.
Qualification division of labor is the separation of simple jobs from more complex ones and is expressed in the division of workers into categories. The level of the qualification division is determined by the complexity of the work performed and the qualifications of the workers corresponding to it, which refers to the level of professional training and technical knowledge of the worker and his practical experience. To assess the skills of the worker, as well as the qualifications of the work performed by him, they use tariff-qualifying directories. Qualification division of labor takes place for professionals and employees. They have a certain category or belonging to a specific category.
Technological division of labor is associated with the separation of the production process by phases, stages and individual operations. The division of labor into phases determines the specialization of shops: procuring, processing and assembly. Each phase is divided into stages (for example, the processing phase is divided into casting, forging, stamping, casting, welding, heat treatment, cutting). The latter in turn consist of operations. The operation includes a number of actions by the worker (or a group of workers) performed in one workplace in order to change the shape, size, condition and relative location of certain items. Depending on the number of types of operations performed at the workplace, the division of labor can be either operational or subject (sub-branch). The first takes place when a limited number of operations are performed in one workplace. This is due to the use of specialized and special equipment (in mass-production production, operational operators carry out a limited number of functions).
Automation of production puts forward the following forms of the division of labor: the combination of heterogeneous labor functions in the specialization of servicing automata of one type; functional division of labor in the service of technologically diverse equipment, functional division of labor and specialization in the maintenance of certain types of equipment with the expansion of the service area.
Along with simple operations that are performed by individual workers, there are also those that can only be performed by a group of workers: work on servicing aggregates, presses, welding machines; work that requires mutual coordination in the production process; work, requiring joint efforts of several performers, i.e. there is labor cooperation.
Cooperation is a form of work organization in which a significant number of people jointly participate in the same or different, but related, labor processes. Joint work, when all workers manually perform homogeneous work, is called simple labor cooperation. The development of production is based on the division of labor and the widespread use of machinery. The labor co-operation creates the basis for the continuity of production processes and the reduction of the production cycle through the simultaneous execution of individual jobs.
At the enterprise, the cooperation of labor can be shop, precinct, intrasite. The shop and district labor co-operation is carried out, proceeding from the technological, subject or functional principle of the formation of production workshops and sites. If their construction is based on the technological principle, ie. specialization deals with certain technological processes, then cooperation manifests itself through an object of labor, which moves from shop to shop, from site to site as the product is manufactured (for example, the parts produced from the turning section are transferred to milling, then to grinding).
When organizing workshops and sites for subject matter each site specializes in manufacturing homogeneous products. Co-operation is manifested at the inter-sectoral level, as well as, for example, assembly of the finished product. This kind of cooperation is easier to coordinate. Such cooperation leads to a reduction in the duration of the production cycle and increased responsibility for the final results.
Inside the sectoral cooperation of labor is most fully implemented in various production teams.
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