Socio-psychological management methods
Management primarily explores the socio-economic relations of people, developing in the management process. In the management process, a complex network of interpersonal relationships is formed. Any organization acts not only as a production and economic unit, but also as an environment in which workers are formed. Therefore, a special place in management is given to socio-psychological management methods that allow to influence the spiritual interests of people, regulate interpersonal relations, and also directly influence the formation and development of the work collective.
Socio-psychological methods include a diverse arsenal of methods and techniques developed by sociology, social psychology, personality psychology, labor psychology, and other sciences that study human and interpersonal relationships.
Socio-psychological management methods are used to solve the following problems:
- diagnosis of the professional suitability of employees;
- the optimal selection and placement of staff, i.e. the most rational formation of personnel;
- regulation of interpersonal relations in the team;
- increase the effectiveness of stimulating the activities of employees
- increase the effectiveness of educational work in the team and strengthen discipline;
- the rationalization of labor processes.
A practical solution to all of the above tasks
requires the establishment of special social and psychological services (departments, bureaus, laboratories) at enterprises.
The activities of the socio-psychological services in the enterprise proceed according to three main directions:
1) research teams and individual groups, setting the problem, conducting observations, surveys and analysis of the data obtained;
2) social design - development of recommendations in terms of social development of collectives, etc.
3) advisory activities - assistance to production managers, staff training.Social and psychological methods of management provide for carrying out the necessary research, which, depending on the method of investigation and volume, can be subdivided into a worker's study using questionnaires, interviews, business games on the "person about man" system, "the collective about a person" , person about the team & quot ;; the study carried out during the performance of the official duties (observation, experiment); the study of the final result of the work of an employee.
In the course of social and psychological research, both the usual (open) observation and the included observation are used. full entry of the researcher into the observable medium for a long period of time.
In the practice of social psychology, experiment is widely used to test hypotheses and techniques. Experiments take place both in laboratory and in natural conditions, i.e. in work collectives.
The most widespread use in management received such socio-psychological methods as interviews, interviews, interviews, questionnaires and testing.
Poll assumes a clear statement of the questions to be answered unambiguously "yes" or no & quot ;. With the help of the survey you can find out the opinion of the staff about the administration, the attitude to innovations, etc.
Conversation provides information from the words of the interlocutor. This is a very common in management socio-psychological method. The conversation is conducted during employment and dismissal, as well as in the process of work. The conversation can be conducted on the initiative of the leader or a subordinate.
Interview is a special type of conversation, during which all questions and all answers are recorded. It can give a deep and detailed picture of the subjective world of the respondent.
The methods of questioning and testing are very common for gathering mass social and psychological information. In this case, the test and questionnaire, being the most important tools of social psychology, have certain differences. The text of the questionnaire does not contain ready-made answers to the questions asked, which allows the questioned to give arbitrary answers, and the survey organizers receive a wide unregulated range of answers, i.e. materials for research.
Test , unlike the questionnaire, contains, as a rule, ready answers to each question posed. At the same time, the answers are clearly formulated, and the test person has the opportunity to choose only one of the options for answering each question, which facilitates further work with the test, since it allows to evaluate each answer in points and offer each test subject one of the possible characteristics depending on the sum of the scores.
Questioning and testing of employees of the enterprise allow us to identify their individual characteristics, inclinations, traits, which makes it possible to use each employee in the work where he can bring the maximum benefit to the enterprise and get satisfaction from his work.
In modern conditions, more and more attention is paid to the methods of moral incentives for work. Such methods include systematic development and training of personnel, planning of the business career of workers, holding various contests and competitions for the title of the best in the profession, etc.
In this regard, there is a need to study social needs and interests of people, which requires the practical application of meaningful and procedural theories of motivation.
Activation of the human factor is connected with the formation of the organizational culture of the firm. Organizational culture is a set of norms and values that are worked out and shared by the team for internal coordination and adaptation to the external environment. Organizational culture expresses in a concentrated form the philosophy of the firm and is reflected in its business credo. Business credo, in turn, contains the mission, the organization's basic goals and the code of conduct of its employees.
Socio-psychological methods and methods of moral incentives are widely used by managers of many enterprises in the formation of personnel, in the management of formal and informal groups, to overcome conflict and stress situations, etc. Knowledge of these methods and the ability to apply them in practice is one of the most important requirements for the leader, since social psychology helps to understand the nature of power and leadership, allows to improve the management style and ensure ethical standards of behavior in the team.
Socio-psychological management methods are usually used in combination with economic and organizational-administrative methods, which increases the effectiveness of their impact.
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